The home is the primary institution for children, home as perceived by Abdulganiyu (1997), christe (2009), defined home as a place in which an individual or a family can rest and store personal property.
Haven’t define the concept of home it is therefore important to define family. The family can therefore, be looked at as a social group characterized by common resident, economic, cooperation and production.
When a child is born, the family is the first primary group with which they come into contact. Transmission of social values of right and wrong, what is morally and religiously accepted or condemned by the family, it follows therefore that by the time a child attained five to seven years of age he must have learnt what are his rights, obligations and roles within the society.
However, the background of a students go along way to determine his/her individuality. As the child enters schools, he/she will start manifesting different attitudes and expectations. In addition they may be of the same age group, developed at different rates and so may be able to cope with the intellectual and social task of the school in varying extent.
However, a home can either be stable or broken. A stable home is one in which both parent (mother and father) lives together with their children, while a broken home is the one in which one or both of the parents are not living together with the children. It is the level at which the home operates that determine the academic achievement of a science students in school. Broken homes been it unstable can influence the achievement of a science students academically.
Also, children that have suffered from neglect or lack of love (in a broken homes) are known to be psychologically imbalanced to face the realities of life. When there is disunity in the family, or a difference between a mother or a father, the child is caught in the middle and will be at disadvantage. According to Blackby (1999), Adequate research need to be conducted in this direction to ensure smooth transition of children from early stages to adulthood.
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The child’s home and his family offer the best education since his parents serve as teachers. The parents lay the foundation for the desired social, moral, emotional, spiritual and intellectual well being of the child. The training a received from home is of greatest importance in his/her total personality formation and his/her academic achievements as a science student. It can also be observed that the pattern of life in the home (stable or broken), the economic and social status of the family in the community and many other conditions that give the home a distinctive character can influence the achievement of science student in school.
Abdulganiyu (1997), added that research have shown that children differs in various ways as a result of variables of their home background such as socio – economic status, parental attitude to school and child rearing practices. These home background variables are also found to be positively related to children’s academic achievement, more especially science students that need care and love.
Similarly, Giwa (1997), have investigated the factors within the students home background or family that affect their performance s in school, variables such as socio – economic status, family size, birth order, parental attitude, child rearing practices, parental absence or presence have been found to affect social and intellectual learning experiences of children in schools. This is so because children are born with some psychological, emotional and intellectual needs such as need for love and security, the need for new experiences, the need for praise and recognition and the need for responsibility. Many of these needs are not offered to the children of broken homes which will influence their performance in science. The extent to which these needs are met during the formative years of children between birth and the age of six or seven in the extent to which they enter school well equipped or ready to deal with the social and emotional aspects of schooling.
Based on the observation above and in line with the assumption that economic and social future of many children in most localities is being undermined by cultural practices that promotes widespread divorce amongst couples and brought unnecessary hardship to the growing children.
It is pertinent at this juncture to point out in spite of all the needs expressed as to be met by the students most especially science students, this research also has intended to seek for how much science student is affected in academic achievement, either as a result of his home been stable or broken.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE BPROBLEM
In our society, children are sometimes exposed at an early age to all sort of dangers arising from malnutrition, diseases and various temptation of surviving due to absence of one or both of their parents. Student’s life in broken homes is observed to be associated with emotional stress that can impair intellectual development, thereby giving way for such children to grow up without being trained properly.
However, absence of one or both parents deprives young children of the stable love, care, security and total support they have been accustomed to and tend to make children different in the eyes of the peer group. if children are asked where the missing parent is or why they have a new parent to replace the missing parents, they become embarrassed and ashamed. They may also feel guilty and unwanted by the society, such stressful situation leads to psychological, emotional and intellectual imbalance in growing children. These subsequently result to quitting from school or poor academic achievement of science student as science require critical thinking, relax mind and proper family support to be able to perform to expectation in the area. Hence it becomes necessary to investigate factors that causes broken homes with a view to finding solution to the problems for psychological well being of growing children in our society, and these lead us to look at the effect of broken homes on science students education particularly in Sokoto South local government.
The following research questions are formulated to guide this study.
1. Does the home have any significant effect on science student education?
2. Is there any significant difference in the academic performances of science students from broken homes and those from stable homes?
3. Does the socialization of the home have any significant effect on the academic performances of science students?
1.4OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this research work include the following.
To find out the causes of home breakage and the solution to it in sokoto south local government area of sokoto state.
To assess the impact or effect of broken homes on science students education.
To find out how absence of one or both parent influence science students academic performances in school.
To seek for solution on how to control widespread divorce among couples.
To suggest ways of women and men unnecessary divorce
To find out whether there is significant differences in academic performances of students from broken home and those from stable home in science schools.
1. There is no any significant effect on science students education in term of broken homes.
2. There is no any significant differences in the academic performances of science students from broken homes and that of science students fro stable home.
3. There is no any significant effect on the acadmic performances of sciences students in term of socialization of the home.
1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to carry out research on possible causes of broken home and its consequences on the educational prosperity of students of science in sokoto south local government of sokoto state. This is with a view to suggest ways of minimizing and overcoming the problem.
As known by all educators, the home play very significant role in child personality formation and socialization, broken homes are identified as one of the factor that undermined the socialization process at home, which consequently affect the performance of student. If the concern of education, science education in particular is to look after socialization process of the child as well as his intellectual development, then this research work would be of great importance to parents and educators that absence of one or both of the parent affect children educational carrier be it medicine, engineering, chemistry, physics and the likes, in the field of education and family life to come with solution of ensuring stability in the homes for the betterment of growing children and the society at large.
1.7SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Though, the questions which prompted this study was found to in existence in different part of the country, most especially in the northern part of the country, it is not possible for this research to cover all such areas. This is because the research/ researchers cannot obtain data from all places concerned due to lack of time and resources (both human and material resources).
As the title of the research reads, the research will be limited to only sokoto south local government area of sokoto state and it should be noted that the work may not represent some areas in the local government and not all people during the course of the research exercise will cooperate, hence the research is bound to experience limitation.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Children are totally dependent, they move from dependence towards independence throughout childhood, in order to survive and develop during this period of dependence, they need care, security, protection, stimulation and social contact. In most societies at most time in history children have most commonly nurtured and cared for within families. Stability of the home is therefore of greatest significance to child’s development. However, broken homes on the other hand are experienced to be stressful by children they feel sense of loss, even blame themselves, when home is not stable or broken down, their children are reported to be suspicious, timid, anxious, introverted and they may not be able to cope with live in the school. It is in view of these that this research aimed at investigating the following.
· The causes of broken homes
· The effect of broken homes on academic performances of science students
· The possible solution to broken homes.
2.1 CONCEPT OF HOME, SCIENCE STUDENTS AND EDUCATION
The concept of home is been defined in different ways.
According to the concise dictionary, a home is a place where one live or an institution for people needing professional care. Murdock (1984), define home to includes adults of both sex, at least two or more who maintain a socially approved sexual relationship, and one or more children own or adopted of the sexually cohabiting adults.
Also, Nwachil (1984), refers to the home as a primary social group and the smallest institution. Also according to Aremu (2011), a home is a place where every member of the family find solace. He added that a complete Home constitute the father, mother, children and other member included.
At this point a home can be seen as a conducive, convenient and adoring environment where members of the family relate with one another, showing love and affection to one another.
According to concise English Dictionary, Science is the study of knowledge of physical and natural world based on observation and experiment. Also according to Wikipedia, science is the systematic enterprise that build and organizes the knowledge in the form of testable explanation.
Students as defined by Concise English Dictionary are persons studying at university or college. Also Wikipedia descirbe students as a leaner who attend an educational institution. However, a school child under the age of eighteen is called pupil. For the sake of this research more emphasis shall be laid on School children rather than university or college students.
Wikipedia defines science students as a person whose study is based on organized knowledge in a testable form. However, considering the topic of this work it will like to look at secondary school students, science students to be precise by placing more emphasis on children.
There is unanimous agreement in respect of the age which childhood terminate. It is clear in our present society that many children seems to have gotten independence from their parent at a tender age.
According to Onimu (1990), placed the upper limit of childhood as 18 years. Also Akinlusi (2000), has seen the children to be any person who is from birth to twenty one (21) years, such a person is still under the protection and care of the parents.
Also according to Hauwa et –al (2005), child is a young person who heavily depends on an adult for care, love, protection, physical, emotional, mental and social support. She added that a child is only able to progress in the journey through life and consequently become independent person through the support and assistance of the parents.
For the purpose of this work, we will like to define the child as a young human being who cannot cater for his/herself but rely solely on the parents for his/her survival. The ease with which the child masters the survival skills, learns the basis of human behavior as well as formation of character and personality is determined by the quality and amount of parental support.
Education on the other hand, to educators is the process through which people’s abilities and talents are developed. Durkheim (1965), Define Education as the transmission of knowledge or value through formal means. This is through formal means of schooling and informal means by systematic socialization of the young by the adults in the family. Also, according to Fafunwa (1974), defines Education as the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or young adult develops their abilities, attitudes and other forms of behavior of positive value to the society in which he lives.
Also according to Sharma ( 2005), Education is the art or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge and habits through institution or study. Adeyemo (2010), perceive Education as the art or science of transmitting culture, norms, traditions, values and ethics of a society from one generation to it’s succeeding generation. To this end Education can be seen as act of giving intellectual or moral instruction to a child or group of learners for the betterment of their characters in the society.
2.2 IMPORTANCE OF THE HOME
The home of a child laid the desired social, moral, emotional, spiritual and intellectual foundations for the child, the family does a lot of things to influence the life of a child among which includes socialization of a child, child care and protection, emotional and social support.
SOCIALIZATION OF A CHILD
The family provide the basis and most important environment in which children learn the culture of the society in which they belong to. The family either consciously or unconsciously teaches children the main aspects of any culture, these are shared values, norms and language.
CHILD’S CARE AND PROTECTION
The family is the most effective in providing day –to – day care for its dependent members, children and the likes. Caring for children outside family is much more expensive and often less effective as the child will never feel safe and secure the way he feel in his home.
EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL SUPPORT
Families perform a very important role, they give a baby a nomenclature and initial position in the society. When one heard of an abandoned child the question we ask ourselves is whose child is this and where did he come from. The family gives the child an identity and a cause of belonging and a feeling of being valued. A child’s family is able to provide a positive feeling of worth that is fundamental to healthy emotional development, that meet the basic needs for love and affection, company and security. In broken homes, children are less likely to find support outside their homes.
2.3 NEEDS OF SCIENCE STUDENTS AS CHILDREN
Children are born with psychological, emotional and intellectual needs such as needs for love and security, the need for new experiences, the need for praise and recognition, the need for responsibility. Sian et – al (1980), as presented by Abdulganiyu (1997), presented four basic needs of the child based on the model of Pringle (1974) as follows.
THE NEED FOR LOVE AND SECURITY
From the very time a child is born the need for care and attention from parents or their substitute become manifest. The child who grows up with the feeling of being loved by everyone in the family, develop a healthy and secure personality. Abdulganiyu (1997), presented a report which observe that the loving relationship which children encounter in the formative years give them confidence and some sense of security that could be of use to them in their future social encounters. Therefore a science students who happen to come from such a home would feel secure in any environment he/she found him/herself anytime he thought of his home.
THE NEED FOR NEW EXPERIENCE
Every child needs new experiences, according to Hebb (1973), he observed that the degree to which people prefer a quite life or more excitement and novelty in their environment differ from individual to individual or situation in which one found his / herself.
Also Sian et – al (1980), asserted that some new experience could be regarded as a pre – requisite of mental development for children. Children learn better when they are given opportunity to interact actively with their experiment, children who were discouraged from their environment there by denied the active exploration of the world around them would always be apathetic, bored and irritated. There is need for new experience to be met, play and language should be introduced into children’s day – to –day activities. Therefore as science students there is need to spend a lot of time with them talking to them, answering questions and helping them to find solution to their own answers through participation. So the orientation one had determined to a large extent how well the need for new experience is met.
THE NEED FOR PRAISE AND RECOGNITION
In order to have confidence to go in life, every child wants assistance of others in his/her life such as parents, grandparents, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts and other members of their family to praise and recognize the efforts he/ she is making in a bid to cope with demands of day – to –day existence. The way the children perceive their parent’s attitude towards them, may to some extent determine the way they see themselves and their concept.
THE NEED FOR RESPONSIBILTY
Children as they grow need increasing degree of freedom if they are to grow into independent adults. They ought to experience the consequences of their actions, unless they are dangerous to their well being. If they do not they have, they have no way of judging the correctness of their behavior. One can therefore conclude that the extent to which a child’s need for responsibility is met, is the extent to which he/ she is able to see him/herself as a useful and accepted member of the community to which he/she belongs.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the extent to which these needs are met depend on the type of home a child is born into on the socio – cultural, economic and political conditions of his/ her society.
2.4 THE ROLE OF HOME IN SCIENCE STUDENTS EDUCATION
Abdulganiyu (1997), observed that the extent to which child’s basic needs are met during the formative years of children, between the age six or seven is the extent to which they enter school well equipped or ready to deal with social and emotional aspect of schooling .
Shote (1997), also observed some factors within the student’s home that affect their performances in school variable such as socio – economic status, family size, birth order, parental attitude, child rearing practices, parental absence or presence have been found to affect the social and intellectual learning experiences of students in schools. Also Lorretta (1995), revealed that a child becomes educated not only by attending schools but by total experience in life which include experiences with family members through which is bound to learn by imitation and direct experiences.
The preliminary training and educational background of the children being at home , right from the time the child is born, he begin to interact with the mother, later with the father and the siblings. Wilkins (1976), also stressed that parents have the responsibilities of guiding and directing their children towards living a useful life by inculcating in them such highly priced values such as discipline, integrity and sense of duty of all the major social institution, the family has been considered as the initial and most influencing agent on the lives of children.
In conclusion, science students will only perform to expectation if they are fully equipped and fully supported by their respective homes.
2.5 BROKEN HOMES
Haven define the concept of home, Aremu (2011), perceived broken home as the integral part of the setting that is father and mother where by if any of the integral part is not available, the home is then said to be broken which in one way or the other affect members of the home negatively.
Marriage unionism is not always a stable one, couples usually indulge in quarrels, fighting etc which consequently result into separation or termination of the marriage union, it is in view of this that Hauwa et – al(2005), observed that homes are usually broken up by death and increasingly by divorce, abandonment or involuntary separation as result job demand or other obligations.
Hauwa, however outlined factors that causes divorce among couples to varies, depending on the locality, culture and nature of the home. In most localities in sokoto state, the major causes of divorce among couples include forced marriages, child marriage (early marriage), ignorance of the right of spouses under shari’ah, instigation from parents and friends, failure to uphold marital obligations, lack of proper upbringing from childhood, difficulty of earning a living (economic hardship) and many more to mentioned but few.
2.6 INFLUENCE OF BROKEN HOME ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SCIENCESTUDENTS
The effects of broken homes on students depend on many factors, the most important of which are the causes of the broken homes when it occurs, and it is either temporary or permanent. When there is a break in the home as result of death and children realize that, the parent will never return, mourn the loss and transfer their affection to the remaining parent, hoping in this way to regain the security they formally had. By so doing one will found the students forgotten that they had other things to attend to like their academics and as a science student there is need for determination and commitment to the classroom activities and laboratory practices, but a child who happen to have a parent pre occupied with grief and practical problems of a broken homes give rise to children that feel rebuffed and unwanted.
This will however, result to resentment that can seriously cause damage or affect the child’s intellectual potentialities required from him/her as science student and that could deter his/her academic achievement in classroom and elsewhere. However, Hauwa et – al (2005), observed that the loss of the mother in early life is more damaging to a child than loss of father. She stated the reason for this to be that the care of young children must under the circumstances be turned over to relatives or paid housekeepers whose child training techniques may differ from those used by mothers and who rarely can give children the attention and affection they formally received from their mothers.
Therefore, a science students brought up under this condition may likely fall victim of missing the love and care of the mother which thereafter affect him/her in the later life of the science students achievement when it come to classroom or practical aspect of science.
Nevertheless, Hauwa et –al (2005), observed that as children grow older, loss of the father is often more serious than loss of mother, especially for boys. The mother may have to go work and with the double burden of home making and outside work, the mother may lack the time and energy to give children the care they need, consequently they feel neglected and become resentful, if mother are unable to provide the recreational opportunities and status symbols children’s peers have, this will add to their resentment. Science students in this case may lack a lot of fatherly advise on their carrier choice in science as a science student compare to those from a stable home or whose father is alive. For older boys, loss of the father means that they have no source of identification as their friends have, and they resent petticoat rule in the home as they do in school.
A home broken by death in such a way that both parent were loss at the same time, the effect are doubly serious beside having to make the radical changes in the pattern of their lives, children will have to adjust to the care of another person, often a person unknown to them, and by so doing the students will have to face so many challenges in his/her academic achievement.
Balikisu et – al (2005) perceived a home to be broken by divorce, such homes can be more damaging to students. There are two reasons with which she supported her point, the period of adjustment to the divorce is longer and more difficult for children than the period of adjustment to death of a parent, as children pass through series of adjustment like denial of divorce, anger which strikes out at those involved in the situation, bargaining in an attempt to bring the parent back together and depression all which must have go along way in deterring the academic achievement of the student who need time to make good use of his brain to think logically as a science students.
Secondly, broken homes caused by divorce are serious because they tend to make children different in the eyes of the peer group. When enquiry is made about the missing parent is or why they have another to replace the missing parent, they become embarrassed and ashamed. Furthermore, they may feel guilty if they enjoy the time they spend with the missing parent or if they prefer living with the missing parent to living with the parent who is taking care of them.
However, Hurlock (1981), reported temporary absence could be damaging to children than permanent break, he added that this mostly occur when the mother or the father is always around for a relatively short time, the absence could be for vacation, military operation and so on that take him away from the home, it could be hospitalization in the case of the mother, such temporary break for a child in science could be stressful though for both parents and their children and could lead to dettoriation in family relationship. Therefore failure of the family to adjust may hinder the academic performances of a sciences students from such a family background, and a child from a family that happen to be otherwise could also have challenges in his/her academic performances in science subjects, that is to show that at this juncture his problem could be social or emotional instability.
From the analysis, it is evident that the home plays a significant role in the education of students, going in the direction of this work science students, by looking at their basic needs as children under the care of their immediate environment and the parent. Meeting the four basic needs will enable the children to grow up psychologically, emotionally and intellectually balanced. The extent to which they enter school better equipped to deal with the socio – emotional aspect of schooling.
Academic achievement was analyzed to be positively related to homes that are warm, accepting, understanding and autonomy granting parent – child relationship, as it is been foster by various roles each of these could play.
Broken homes was also identified as detrimental to overall development of the child. Hence here seems to be a strong needs to find out possible causes of broken homes, it’s effect on academic performances of science students education. This will provide possible suggestions on how to tackle the situation.
This research work is to study the effects of broken homes on science students in sokoto south local government. It is primarily aimed at investigating the possible causes of high rate of divorce among couples as it affects achievement in science in sokoto south local government and to assess the various ways broken homes influence students academic performances in schools. This in view to recommend measures of controlling couples from unnecessary divorce for students better performance in science at schools.
This chapter consists of the following headings
· Research Design
· Population of the study
· Sample and Sampling Techniques
· Validity of Instrument
· Reliability of instrument
· Method of Data Cllection
· Method of Data Analysis
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This research study is a descriptive type, it is design to find the effect of broken homes on science students education in sokoto south local government of sokoto state. The researcher(s) will sort the opinion of respondents with the aid of questionnaires which are based on certain variables such as ages, marital status, occupation and number of children.
Due to limitation in resources (time and money) the researcher(s) cannot visit all the schools and household in sokoto south local government and therefore will concentrate on some sample parts.
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population of this study include all of the married people, parents, teachers and school students of sokoto south local government area of sokoto state.
The researcher(s) hope to visit if not all but most of the science secondary schools in sokoto south local government and out of the school visited only ten will be selected. The selection of the school will be based on spatial location, size of the classes, type and nature of the school system i.e either day or boarding, mixed sexes or single etc.
The schools to be selected will represent the whole science secondary schools in sokoto south local government area of sokoto state.
TABLE 1: SOME SELECTED SCIENCE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SOKOTO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT.
NAGARTA COLLEGE SOKOTO
SHEIK ABUBAKAR GUMMI MEMORIAL SECONDARY SCHOOL
SOKOTO TEACHERS COLLEGE SOKOTO
GIGINYA MEMORIAL COLLEGE SOKOTO
SULTAN BELLO SECONDARY SCHOOL SOKOTO
SULTAN ATIKU SECONDARY SCHOOL SOKOTO
A. A RAJI SECONDARY SCHOOL SOKOTO
SULTAN ABUBAKAR COLLEGE SOKOTO
NANA GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL SOKOTO
HAFSAT AHMADU BELLO MODEL ARABIC SECONDARY SCHOOL SOKOTO
SOURCE: Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technical Education Sokoto State.
The above schools were under the direct supervision of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technical Education respectively. This is to to ensure that the school selected are subjected to the same administrative conditions. Moreover, a deliberate attempt will be made to ensure an equal treatment of these selected schools as much as possible.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES.
A sample is a listed number of elements selected from a population as a representation of the population (Ndagi 1984).
The sample of this study will consist of 10 science secondary schools to be selected randomly selected and 10 houses to be randomly selected as well. A total of 100 respondents, ten each from each school will be selected and 10 from 10 houses respectively.
These sample chosen will therefore be representative for the whole population, inference will be drawn from them.
The major research instrument adopted in the study was survey based on the research question drawn by the research.
In the process of data collection, the research(s) used structured questions in form of a questionnaire whereby respondents choose/tick on the available options provided and thereafter express their opinions based on options provided in the questions. The questionnaires were designed in such away that items of information required from respondent t were minimal to enable the respondent to promptly fill and return them. Also a verbal interview will be conducted with the illiterate parent and school student that could not understand the questions very well.
The questionnaires are of two set namely
1. Questionnaire for parents and teachers
2. Questionnaire for student
3.5.1 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT.
The instrument adopted for this research will be presented to the experts in science and vocational department, faculty of Education and Extension services of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (UDUS) who will cross checked the questions there in and approve them as good enough to solicit information needed for the study.
3.5.2 RELIABILITY OF INSTUMENT
The instrument adopted for this research was found reliable as it has been cross checked by expert and confirmed to be worthy enough to seek for information. The researchers also aimed at adopting a test and re – test, where by the instrument will be retested a week after the first test.
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
In the process of data collection, the researcher(s) in the survey, limit the use of questionnaire to the school visited and the interview aspects to the questioned are structured as the respondents only have to select / tick or the one he/she feels is his /her perception.
The researcher(s), with the help of letters of introduction from the ministry of science and technical education and ministry of education hope to gain access to the promotional examination results of the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 academic session respectively. The datas (promotional Examinations) results will be used by the researchers to know the academic performances of the students. This will go a long way in helping the researchers to identify weather there is significant difference of academic performance between students coming from a broken home and those coming from a stable home.
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
Since the researchers hope to use two different set of datas, the analysis also has to be in two phases.
The first method to be adopted in this research will be based on statistical table by distributing the respondents according to their answers as will be for survey.
The second phase of the analysis, which is going to be the result of the promotional Examination will be subjected to the statistical treatment (t- test) to find out the significant differences in academic performance between the students coming from a broken home and those coming from stable home.