SURVEY OF LANGUAGE VARIATION
A CASE STUDY OF RUNDAWA (GURUMADA) AND OTHERS FULANI SPEAKERS AROUND SURU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KEBBI STATE
JAFARU ABUBAKAR SURU
ADM .NO: 0711109074
This research work has been only supervised and approved as having met one of the requirements for the award of a Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in the Department of modern European Languages and Linguistics, Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
Dr. Ibrahim Awwal Date
Dr. Asabe K Usman Date
Head of Department
External Supervisor Date
This research project is completely dedicated to my beloved parents, Late Malam Abubakar (Garba Baka), Hajiya Zainabu (Sharifiya), Malama Halima, Malama Hajara and also to my brothers and sisters.
In the name of Allah, the Beneficient, the Merciful. Thanks be to almighty Allah who made it possible by giving me the wisdom, courage, zeal, health and ability to complete this work and degree programme in this great institution and particularly this department. I will like to acknowledge my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my project supervisor, Dr. Ibrahim Awwal for his tolerance, patience and encouragement, which made strong and encouraged to reach the level of education I have attained today to . May Allah the almighty bless him abundantly and protect to him against all evls . His suggestions and useful criticisms throughout the writing of this project have been of great help to me. Also i need to express my gratefulness to my brothers, sisters and friends who have contributed to the success of this research project. They are Barrister Amina Ka’oje, Malam Hamza Suru, Nasiru Abubakar Suru, Oga Compu, Oga Nasiru Ibrahim, Rashida Jafaru, Bashiru Muhammad (Oga), Bashiru Shehu, Mansur Yusuf Kangiwa, Zubairu M.T. Marina, Muhallah Hadi, Abu Danchadi, Bsinu Abubakar Giro, Suleiman Abubakar Ajeje, Abdulmalik Aliyu, A. G. Suru, Aliyu Abubakar Gulashi, Rabi’u Sani Sale, Shamsudeen Sani D/Gari, Abubakar A Abakar, Kabiru Umar Suru, Bashar Sanusi, Suleman Abdulrahim, Abdulhamid Mustapha (Al-Chemist), Salihu Saheed (Iron body), Shamsu Hashimu and Muhammad Abdullah Suru. May Allah reward you for the contribution you rendered.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Brief History of Suru Local Government
1.1 Geographical location of Suru LGA.
1.2 District and Population
1.3 People, population and cultures
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Scope and Delimitation
1.6 Aims and Objectives
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Language variation
2.1 Historical background of Gurumada
2.2 Historical background of other Fulani in the Local Government Area
2.3 The role of English as a Lingua-Franca
2.4 The role of Pidgin English as a Lingua-Franca
2.5 The uses of language in multi-lingua society
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
The differences and similarities between Gurumadanci and other Fula dialect in the Local Government Area.
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter is an introduction to the research. Chapter two is the review of other works that are related to this. Chapter three is the methodology. Chapter four consists of tables with some vocabularies of Gurumadanci dialect and other Fulfude dialects spoken in Dankin-Gari.
1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF SURU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The headquarters of Suru Local Government Area is located in Dakin-Gari. Suru Local Government Area it was one of the twenty one (21) local government areas in Kebbi State. Suru Local Government Area was formed from part of Bunza Local Government in 1989.
1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF SURU LGA
Suru Local Government Area is bordered by Bunza and Dandi Local Government Area in the northern part and Bagudo Local government area in the south. However, Suru Local Government shares boundary with Mayyama Local Government Area in the eastern part. Suru Local Government Area covers an area of 36,800 square kilometers.
1.3 DISTRICT AND POPULATION
Suru Local Government Area is divided into six (6) districts and eleven (11) political wards. The districts include Dakin-Gari, Suru, Giro, Bakuwai, Aljannare and Barbarejo districts.
Suru Local Government Area has an aggregate population of 148,474; with, 72,912 male and 75,562 are females. According to 2006 census.
1.4 PEOPLE AND CULTURE
Suru Local Government Area consists of many people of different tribes and culture. People such as Hausawa, Fulani, Zabarmawa and Rundawa in Dakin-Gari, make up the population in Suru Local Government Area. Other minority groups include the Yoruba and Igbos, who migrated from places such as Oyo, Osun, Lagos and Ibadan of the present day southern Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In fact, the researcher tooka lot of time in order to give details of the little he was able to gather about the history of the (Rundawa Gurumada and Fulani in Dakin-Gari town). This research has been able to discuss the genetic relationships that exist between the two different dialects of fulani. The research findings has been made it clear the linguistic relationship between the Gurumadanci and other Fulfulde dialects in Dakin-Gari town.
The researcher wants to serve as one of the sources of information to future researches on the area.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS
In carrying out a socio-linguistic research, it is important to know the language variation. This research covers only two dialects viz: Gurumadanci and other Fulfude dialects in order to find their differences and their similarities.
This research is intended to cover the entire Dakin Gari town, but due to time allocated for the research and cost of materials, the research resorted to the use of sample population. The areas that are selected in the town, such as: Sabon Birni, Bundu-bago,, Shiyar Haɓe, Sabon gari and also Runto.
The obstacles of this research for them to accept their name as a Guru-madan, because most of them regard the word of Gurumadan Fulani like insulting word, but some few number of them, such as traditional restlers are used to called themselves as Gurumdada
1.7 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
In a multi-ethnic society, especially in Africa, Language plays a vital role in various groups of human activities such as politics, religion, commerce or social interactions. Language in this case becomes the most important co-existence factors among the various ethnic groups.
The aim of this research therefore, is to look at the differences and similarities between Rundawa (Gurumadanci) and other Fulfude dialects in Dakin-gari in social context.
2.0 LANGUAGE VARIATION
Languages vary in many ways. One way of characterizing certain variation is to say that speakers of a particular Language sometimes speak different dialects of that Language. Although it has already been noted how difficult it is to define dialects although we find it useful to use the term in this work and even to extend to studies of regional variation and those of social variation. In this way it would be possible to talk about both regional dialects and social dialects of a Language.
The mapping of dialects on a regional basis has had a long history in linguistics (see Pertzt 1980) Chiambes and Trudgill, 1998), and 1998, and Wakelin 1977). In fact, it is a well established part of the study of how Languages change overtime, i.e. of dictionary or historical linguistics. Language change and dialect differentiation, should always be possible to relate any variation found within a Language to the factors of time and distance; e.g, the British and American varieties, Kanuri and Sakkulatanci or Fulfulde and Rundawa (Gurumada) variety or dialect of English are separated by over two counties of political indigenous and by the Atlantic ocean; Northern and cocking English are nearly 300 mutes and many centuries apart.
Language variation, Language use varieties in many dimension. The major dimensions are the following:
Regional: Dialect variation
Social: Socio dialect or class dialect variation
Functional: Register or functional style variation.
The term ‘lect’ back-formulation from dialect is sometimes used to cover the notion of Language variant. Language users move around in the variety space define by these three dimensions and the territory in variety space which is covered by a single user is known as his ‘Idiolect’
Language variation; everyone speaks at least one Language, and probably most people in the world speak more than one, even Americans, most of whom speak only English, known as a dialect of English. Certainly no one talked exactly the same way at all times. You are to speak to your boss in the style (or vocabulary) that you would not use in talking to one who just jammed your car from behind.
Types of Language Change
Grammatical constructions change. A passage in the old English Lord’s Prayer in literal translation, ‘not lead thou us into temptation’, in sharp contrast to modern English ‘don’t lead us into temptation.’
There are three components that make up the basis for Language variation. In order to understand Language variation, it is very important to apply these three major components to establish a better grasp of working device in the study of Language. The first component to Language variation lies within the linguistic environment at childhood. When communication forms are traced as a child grows, the variations to their Language comes from their parents, their commonly and their own understanding of the communication forms that they are learning.
The second component to language variation of syntactic parameters.The general theory as proposed by professor yang pennsyvania state university language department, is that in the study of language variation the parameters are what commonize different aspect of language.This concept expantds on the firt language variation component because the syntactic structure parameter take individual items, like grammar and the acquisition of language create an area of inspection from a child’s learning of a language. The third component in language variation is in the understanding that language variation itself will never be full completed. This means that due to myriad of factors that come in to play when studying one area’s languages, its dialects and variation of the core language there will never be one set of directives that will be able to remain the same when studying another are’s language.
2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RUNDAWA ( GURUMADA)
In the world, every group of people you see have their on claims and origin or history about who they are, where they come from. The Rundawa (Gurumada) people laid claim that, they are Kabbawa or Kyangawa who under the Hodi jan Kosai left Birnin Kebbi town after the defeat of Kabbawa by the Jihadist of 1804 that made people migrated to different places. Their first settlement was in Kyangakwai town, the present day Dandi Local Government Area. After some few years Kyangawa decided to proceed in search of meat through hunting where they settled in present day Dankingari. Most of them were hunters and farmers. According to this tradition, these people were in search of water to drink as a result discovered a well called Argida, it is now situated in the area called dying place (Marina) in Dakingari. The discovery of the well motivated Hodi and his group to settle around the area in the now Suru Local Government Area such as Dankingari, Suru, Bakuwai, Zakuwa, Kainike, Bakoshi, Kamkure, Tungar-rini and Talata, etc. In Dakin-gari one of the Rundawa (Gurumada) whose name is Mohammadu Sama –leda said after the settlement of Kabawa then a Fulani man who migrated with his family from Borgu land, his name Usmanu Ja’oje and lived cordially there with Kyangawa when Hausa people came into the settlement are lived under Hodi Jan kosai, and Fulani people who came lived under Usman Jeoje. As time went on, people are increased and lived togetheras one. After a long timeof lived Kyagawa learnt to speak Fula, could understand Fula Language very well, and by that there was a language shift,and to some,it was a case of Language assimilation.
The name Guru-mada, was a name change from kengawa during their war with Fanawa people in Dandi local government, because Fanawa people did not understand fula Language during their fighting with Kyangawa people of Dakin Gari, when the commander of army from Dakin Gari shouted “Tara, gurumada” (which means shiled with your skin). The word ‘tara’ in Fula means covering shied; ‘guru’ skin and ‘mada’ your own”. Henceforth, the enemies at war then call them ( the people of Dakin-Gari) with the name ‘Guru-mada’.
2.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE OTHER FULANI IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The Fulani Usmanu Je’oje who was said to migrate from Borgu land in present day Chad Republic was on his way to the Southern part of the present Nigeria when he discovered the Arigidi well. Hajjiya Amo with age 82 year demonstrated that Jeoje discovered the well , when he was travelling in search of water during which the cow discovered the well. The cow took followed the lead and the road Jeoje decided to follow his cow that led him to discover the Argida well. Hajjiya Amo further explained that Je;oje settled there until later when the kyangawa people arrived.Later Je’oje left the kyangawa and proceeded on his journey and founded Ka’oje the present day Bagudo local government are.
The proponent of this legend argued that the people from Kabbi who established Dakin-gari were not Muslims but it was later that they invited a renown scholar from Zagga,a settlement of about 9 km to Dakingari town. The scholar was name Bosu, he was invited to teach the Kyangawa people Islamic knowledge and served as Imam. He was a Fulani man by tribe. While interviewing Abubakar Bosu II, he explained that most of Fulani who were said to be amang the early indigenous were his descendants. Bosu contended that around 1823 the son of Imam Bosu was confirmed by the emir of Gwandu as the first ruler of Dakin-Gari town by name Boyi Dan Bosu.
2.3 THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN MULTI-LINGUAL SOCIETY
Language is an indispensible element of mutual understanding in a society, being the systematic and conventional use to sounds, signs or written symbols for communication and self expression in a human society.
Linguists, Sociologists and Shirks have made several definitions to the socio-linguistic situation of a multilingual community. This research project considers, among several works on language in society. Writely (1974), which discussed extensively, the conditions under which multilingual situations could be found, he states: “One might exceed to find high incidence of multilingualism under the following conditions:
Where access to education is unlimited and protracted.
Where the community is linguistically heterogeneous.
Where the personal mobility is high.
Where strong attempts are to encourage, to speak a particular language.”
Fishman (1976:11) defines multi-lingualism as a situation where a single population makes use of two or more languages or varieties of the same language for internal communication.
Fishman argued that the multilingual situation is such that individuals living in the community use various languages in various domains. The sociolinguistic situations of such community is such that not only do individuals make use of their respective ethnic languages, but also use other languages for inter-ethnic group communication. That is, in a community group where there are ethnic groups such as Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, etc. we will respect each group to posses an ethnic language with which we identify their respective ethnic groups.
2.3 LAGUAGE SHIFT
Language shift been an area study among sociolinguists, including Joshua Fishman, in recent decades. Revising shift involves establishing the degree to which a particular language has been ‘dislocated’ in order to determine to determine the best to assist or revise the language.
Ghil’ad Zuckermann proposes Revival Linguistics as a new linguistics as a new linguistic discipline and paradigm. Zuckermann’s term ‘Revival Linguistics’ is modelled upon ‘Contact Linguistics’ (< language contact). Revival linguistics inter alia explores the universal constraints and mechanisms involved in language reclamation, renewal and revitalisation. It draws perspicacious comparative insight from one revival attempt to another, thus acting as an epistemological bride between parallel discourses in various local attempts to revive sleeping tongues all over the globe.
Steps in reversing language shift, Joshua Fishman’s model for reviving threatened (or dead) language, or for making them sustainable, consist of an eight-stage process. Efforts should be concentrated on the earlier stages of restoration until they have been consolidated before proceeding to the later stage. The eight stage are as follows:
Acquisition of the language by adults, who in effect act as language apprentices (recommended where most of the remaining speakers of the language are elderly and socially
isolated from other speakers of the language).
Create a socially integrated population of active speakers (or users) of the language (at this stage it is usually best to concentrate mainly on the spoken language rather than the written language).
In localities where there are reasonable number of people habitually using the language, encourage the informal use of the language among people of all age groups and within families and bolsters its daily use through the establishment of local neighbourhood institution in which the language is encouraged, protected and (in certain context at least) used exclusively.
In areas where oral competence in the language has been achieved in all age groups encourage literacy in the language but in a way that does not upon assistance from (or goodwill of) the state education system.
Where the state permits it, and where numbers warrant, encourage the use of the language in compulsory state education.
Where the above stages have been achieved and consolidated, encourage the use of the language in the work place (lower work sphere).
Where the above stages have achieved and consolidated encourage the use of the language in local government services and mass media.
Where the above stages have been achieved and consolidated encourage the use of language in their education, government etc.
This chapter is mainly concerned with the methods used in collecting the necessary data that was used in writing this project. As mentioned earlier, very little literature on these language are available and even those that are available are neither officially recognized nor collectively harmonized. The implication of this on this project is apparent, it compell us discussing the differences and similarities that exist between the Rundawa fula dialect (Gurumada) and other fula dialects in Dakin-gari town, Suru Local Government. The comparison was based on their linguistic relationship of some lexical items of the two dialects.
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Researcher made a good use of the project of Nasiru Mu’azu D/Gari History Department UDUS about the Inter-group relationship in twenty centuries in Dakin-Gari town. It is important to mention here that, my grand mother Haj. Amo has been a very useful resource person to this research work . Haj. Amo is 68 years old, she is from the ruling class family in Dakin-Gari town, and has conveniently assisted the researcher as a resource person.
Other distinguished resource person who gave their contributions through interviews include: Malam Abubakar Eggo, he is an Islamic Scholar also Senior brother to Sarkin Malammai Dakin-Gari District. He is from the family of other fula dialect (Gorgabe). He is a native speaker of Gorgabe fula dialect, he is popularly known as Malam Eggo. The researcher got some useful information used in making this project.
Similarly, in effort to get data for this project. The researcher have had some discussions with some people among Rundawa fula dialect (Gurumada) such as Muahmmadu Samalada and Mamman Dan-Tauriya at Sabon-birni area in Dakin-gari town all are Hospital cleaners. The information got from them have been of great help to this research.
The last person consulted was one of the recognized fula, Malam Bashiya, whowork as a driver. whose words have been used in this project.
However, the researcher have also used experimental method, where he conducted an experiment on some native speakers from two different Rundawa fula dialect (Gurumada and other fula dialect in Dakin-gari) The researcher realized some differences and similarities, such as in pronunciation, and choice of vocabulary with a litte difference. In the aspect of similarities, they have well understanding of each other and most of the lexical items used are the same. The researcher is going to present this in chapter four.
The samples for this research were made in Dakin-gari from areas such as: Sabon-birni, Sabon-gari, Runto and Bundu-bago.
The section deals with the ways and means through which data are obtained and interpreted and the theoretical approach adopted for data analysis. For the sake of academic and practical purposes, the researcher intends to discuss how the data are obtained and interpreted in chapter four.
3.4 INSTRUMENT USED
The data used for this analysis consist of lexical items obtained from the native speakers of each of the two dialects. The instrument used for the data collection is Swadesh word list which consists of two hundred words. The respondents who are native speakers of each dialects were asked the equivalents of these words which are phonetically transcribed for the purpose of this investigation. For the purpose of this research, phonetic transcriptions were reconstructed using reconstruction method. Thus, the similarities or otherwise are established based on the reconstructed items. In order to determine the degree of similarities or otherwise, researcher adopt the following procedures:
There is the need to determine the ratio of similarity which is as it follows:
Ratio= (Number of Similarities)/(Number of Lexical Items)=X/200=200
Where X = Number of similarities found in the dialect involved
200 = Total number of lexical items.
Then, we need to determine the percentage of similarities which are as it follows:
Percentage of similarities = (Ratio)n-1 x 100
Where (n) is the number of language dialects involved in the analysis.
The time depth is obtained by using lexicostatistics which is a simple method that determines the number of cognitive/similarities and dissimilarities upon which the time depth formula would be applied. The time depth formula is a standard formula which is as it follows:
t = (Log C)/(2 log r)×1000
Where t = is the time depth or the time of seperation of the language/dialects.
2Logc = is the logarithm of the ratio of cognites/similarities shared by the language/dialects :C
Logr = is the percentage of cognates/similarities retained after a millennium of separation :r.
The percentage of cognates/similarities retained by the languages/dialects after a millennium of separation is a constant. Lee (1953) and Swadesh (1955) in Kidda (1997) propose 85% and 83% respectively. In this analysis, we consider (1951) in Bashir (1999) which argues that ‘everyday segement of the vocabulary are replaced at a defined rate and words that have been maintained in related languages may be used for dating in much the same way as radioactive decay has been used for dating the age of the earth’. Thus, with these procedures, we determine the degree of similarities which are the cognates and dissimilarities among the two fula dialects with a view to classifying and determing the time of their separation or the time depth. In the calculation of the time depth, we used a calculator because it gives a more accurate calculation of the logarithm.
4.0 THE DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN RUNDAWA FULA DIALECT (GURMADA) AND OTHER FULA DIALECTS
It has become an established fact that Rundawa fula dialect and other fula dialects are not genetically related, because they have different origin historical origin.It is important to mention here that, it is this relationship that exist between these dialects that form the basis of this project work. It is equally important to say that the findings from this relationship are based on historical facts. However,in the similarities of these dialects (based on our previous discussions in the foregoing chapters) in terms of their geographical locations, and their linguistic relationship.
However, going by the geographical location of these dialects and which form a greater part of their linguistic behaviour, one is very much likely to understand that, there is a very strong link linguistically existing between them. For instance, almost all the lexical items that are used are the same phonetically and even semantically, but in terms of phonology, there are little difference which non-native speakers can not realise at once. None of the native speakers of these two dialects can doubt this. But the name of Guru-mada which is popularly known among the people is not proved to the most accurate name accepted by the native speakers.Recently, very few native speakers called themselves Gurumada, such as ‘yan dambe’ (local boxers).
4.1 GEOGRAPHICALLY THE RUNDAWA AND OTHER FULANI ARE NOT SEPARATED
According to Malam Abubakar Eggo (2011) ‘the real Fulfulde dialect simply became the dominant dialect and the Rundawa fula dialect (Guru-mada) was compelled to assimilate it. The result of this assimilation is inter-marriage between the two groups.
However, one interesting thing about these two dialects is that they can understand each other with some minor differences. The minor differences are not serious for they do not hinder interactions nor temper with meanings. In fact, when two the native speakers interact (linguistically), a non-native speaker of the two can hardly notice any differences between them. Both of them accepted this fact during my interview and other discussions with them.
The most important comparison in this regard is the linguistic relationship of the two dialects. It is important to note that the Rundawa dialect and other fula dialect in Dakin-gari have very strong linguistic ties between them. For instance, like English words, these two dialects can have their words taxonomy into: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverb, prepositions, adjectives and conjunctions.
S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss
gorogal Gerogal Hen
konga Koigal Leg
asitiya Lokotororu Hospital
chobbal Chutal Tura
kata Kata ‘Soap’
titiyol Bangalol ‘Road’
danejun Denejun ‘White’
li’o li’o ‘Soup’
yiri Yiri ‘Fod’
S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss
mihin Min I’’
an An ‘You’
onon On ‘you plural’
kambe Kanbe ‘They ‘
kamko Kanko ‘She/he’
menon Men ‘We’
kumen Komen ‘Ourselves’
moinon Moini ‘Who’
dume Dume ‘Which’
S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss
daru Raru ‘To look’
waroi Waroi ‘Came’
jabu Jabu ‘Take’
hettina Hettina ‘Listen’
wussa Wurta ‘Go out’
Sodu Chodu ‘Buy’
yamu Yamu ‘Eat’
yardu ya’du ‘Travelling’
haure Khaure ‘Fight’
aikije Gollole ‘Work’
S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss
gareido waredo’en ‘Came here’
yautu tam tautu tom ‘Go there’
Jaago Jingo ‘Tomorrow’
Subana subaka ‘Morning’
jemma Jenma ‘Night’
keya Keya ‘Yesterday’
yaudol Yawol ‘Quickly’
bodungol woggol ‘Do nicely’
yaloma yanlol ‘In the evening’
yawulol yawulol ‘Early’
S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss
chuka Suka ‘A small boy’
balejo Balejo ‘A black man’
bodejo Bodejo ‘A white man’
judgol Jutol ‘Long’
dammol Dammol ‘Short’
Petel Pamarel ‘Small’
seddekah Seddal ‘Small amount
lechchal Lechchal ‘Cilender girl’
maudun Maudun ‘Big in quality’
butta Butta ‘Big in pat’
S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss
dove Dow ‘On’
lei Lei ‘Under’
der Der ‘Inside’
yaasi Yaasi ‘Outside’
chaka Chaka ‘Middle’
do’en do’en ‘Here’
To’en to’en ‘There’
Lai Lai ‘Near’
S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss
i I ‘And’
kuma Kum ‘Also’
iŋ Iŋ ‘If’
This chapter has intends to classifed two fula dialects into groups and has shown the degree of homogeneity in each group thus identifies and discusses the degrees of similarities among the dialects using Greenberg’s (1963) method of classification.mass comparison and the time depth formula as illustrated below:
This section deals with the analysis of various degrees of
similarities and dissimilarities within the dialects and among different couples of dialects with a view to observing the degree of homogeneity within each group and within couples of dialects. In addition to this, we intend to determine the time depths of the dialects i.e. the time of separations of the dialects with a view to finding the time when these dialects will be separate languages within the same family.
Below is a table of 200 word list in pairs of the two dialects:
Gloss Gurumada fula dialect Other fula dialect
‘All’’ [hu:] [fu:]
‘And’ [?i] [?i]
‘Animal’ [bisa:ʤi] [Visa:ʤi]
‘Ashes’ [Ka:ta] [Ka:ta]
‘Back’ [ɓa:wɔ] [ɓa:wɔ]
‘Bad’ [Kuwɔ:ɗa] [Kɔwɔ:ɗa]
‘Blood’ [Či:ča:ŋ] [Či:ča:ŋ]
‘Belly’ [re:du] [re:du]
‘Big’ [mauɗuŋ] [mauɗuŋ]
‘Bird’ [t∫ɔlel] [t∫ɔlel]
‘Bite’ [jatu] [jatu]
‘Black’ [ɓaleʤuŋ] [ɓauleʤuŋ]
‘Blow’ [ɸu:ɸɔL] [pu: ɸɔl]
‘Burn’ [bulɔl] [wulɔl]
‘Child’ [ɓiŋgel] [ɓiŋgel]
‘Cold’ [ɸewɔl] [pe:wɔl]
‘Come’ [wurɔi] [wurɔi]
‘Count’ [li:sa] [li:su]
‘Cut’ [hi:sa] [hi:su]
‘Day’ [hande] [haŋde]
‘Die’ [ma:yeide] [ma:jɔl]
‘Dig’ [basɔl] [wasɔl]
‘Dirty’ [tu:di] [tu:di]
‘Dog’ [rawa:du] [kutu:ru]
‘Drink’ [jarɔl] [jarɔl]
‘Dry’ [jɔrɔl] [jɔrɔl]
‘Dust’ [Ќwu:rahal] [Ќwu:rahal]
‘Ear’ [nɔuru:] [nɔuru:]
‘Ears’ [nɔppi] [nɔppi]
‘Earth’ [laidi] [laidi]
‘Eat’ [ja:mu] [ja:mu]
‘Eggs’ [ɓɔt∫t∫ɔɗe] [ɓɔt∫t∫ɔ:ɗe]
‘Eye’ [hi:ter:] [hi:ter:]
‘Eyes’’ [gite:] [gite:]
‘Fall’ [ja:nɔl] [ja:nɔl]
‘Far’ [tu:wɔɗɗi] [tu:wɔɗɗi]
‘Fat’ [nebban [nebbaŋ]
‘Father’ [ba:ba:] [ba:ba:]
‘Daddy’ [ba:bi:ra:wɔ:] [ba:bi:ra:wɔ:]
‘Fear’ [kulɔl] [kulлl]
‘Few’ [seɗɗa] [seɗɗa]
‘Fight’ [haure] [haure]
‘Fire’ [hi:te:] [hi:te:]
‘Fish’ [liɗɗi] [liɗɗi]
‘Five’ [ʤɔji:] [ʤɔji:]
‘Hen’ [gɔrgal] [gergal]
‘Head’ [hɔ:re] [hɔ:re]
‘Finger’ [ɸede:li] [pede:li]
‘Fingers’ [ɸeɗeŋgɔl] [peɗeŋgɔl]
‘Before’ [na:ne] [na:ne]
‘East’ [lettuga] [lettugal]
‘South’ [hɔ:rehuɗɔ] [hɔ:rehuɗɔ]
‘North’ [suɓɓirde] [suɓɓire]
‘West’ [gɔrɔgal] [gɔrgal]
‘Sand’ [laidi] [leidi]
‘Way’’ [la:wɔl] [la:wɔl]
Farm’ [gesa:] [gesa]
‘Sow’ [a:wɔl] [awure]
‘Grass’ [huɗɔ:] [huɗɔ:]
‘Fura’ [t∫ɔbbal] [t∫u:tal]
‘Activities’ [aiki:ʤe] [gɔllal]
‘Girl’ [ʤiwɔ:] [ʤiwɔ:]
‘Girls’ [ʤu:ɓe:] [ʤu:ɓe:]
‘Boy’ [suka:] [suka:]
‘Boys’ [suka:ɓe] [suka:ɓa]
‘Man’ [taga:ɗɔ] [taga:ɗɔ]
‘men’ [taga:ɓe] [taga:ɓe]
‘Maize’ [masara:ri] [tɔkɔli:ri]
‘’Day’ [jala:de] [ʤala:de]
Cloth’ [kɔltal] [kɔltal]
‘Travelling’ [ja:du] [ʤahaŋgal]
‘River’ [gɔlɔ:re] [gɔlɔ:re]
‘Lake’ [we:nu] [we:nu]
‘Swamp’ [ma:wɔ] [ma:wɔ]
‘Cows’ [ŋa’i] [ŋa’i]
‘Hons’ [gala:ɗi] [gala:ɗe]
Soup’ [li’ɔ:] [li’ɔ]
‘Snake’ [ɓɔggɔl] [bɔddi]
‘Mirrow’ [da:nɔlgal] [da:nɔrgal]
‘Scare’ [dullata] [rellata]
‘Rain’ [ijɔnde] [jɔŋde]
‘Cloud’ [mɔtše] [matše]
‘House’ [t∫u:ɗi] [wurɔ]
‘Stone’ [haire:] [haire:]
‘Ship’ [bali] [bali]
‘Goat’ [be’a] [be’a]
‘Goats’ [be’i] [be’i]
‘Sickness’ [ўawu] [ʤɔnte]
‘Well’ [ʤamu] [ʤamo]
Scorpion’ [jaire] [jaire]
‘Female’ [rɔuɓe:] [rɔɓe:]
‘Male’ [wɔuɓe:] [wɔuɓe:]
‘Madman’ [kagga:ɗɔ] [kaŋga:ɗɔ]
‘Study’ [ʤande] [ʤande]
‘Book’ [dautare:] [dautare:]
‘Bush’ [ladde] [ladde]
‘Town’ [gari] [si:re]
‘Money [t∫e:de] [∫e:de]
‘Got’ [keᵷal [heᵷal]
‘White’ [daneʤun] [danedʤun]
‘Fly’ [umma] [umma]
‘Four’ [najii] [naji]
‘Give’ [hɔkkaŋ] [hɔkkaŋ]
‘Good’ [bɔ:gɔl] [bɔ: ɗuŋ]
‘Grass’ [huɗɔ] [huɗɔ]
‘Hair’ [ga:sa] [ga:sa]
‘Hand’ [ʤuŋgɔ] [ʤuŋgɔ]
‘He’ [kankɔ] [kaŋkɔ]
‘Heard’ [ɓerde] [ɓerde]
‘Heavy’ [teddɔl] [teddɔl]
‘Here’ [ɗɔ:en] [ɗɔ:en]
‘Hold’ [ʤɔga] [ʤɔga]
‘How’ [nɔinɔŋ] [nɔinɔŋ]
‘I’ [mi:him] [mi:him]
‘in’ [der] [der]
‘Kill’ [ba:re] [ba:re]
‘Know’ [?aŋdɔl] [?aŋdɔl]
‘Laugh’ [ʤaleɗi] [ʤalol]
‘Leaf’ [ha:kɔ] [ha:kɔ]
Left side’ [ɸarnanɔ] [ɸarnanɔ]
‘Leg’ [kɔŋgal] [kɔigal]
‘Lie’ [ɸeure] [peure]
Liver’ [ɓerde] [ɓerde]
‘Long’ [ʤuggal] [ʤuggɔl
‘Man’ [taga:ɗɔ] [niɗɗɔ]
Many’ [kuɗuɗi] kɔɗu:ɗi]
‘Meat’ [te:wu] [kusel]
Mother’ [iŋna:] [ma:mira:wɔ]
‘Mouth’ [kuŋdukɔ] [huŋdukɔ]
‘Name’ [inde] [iŋde]
‘Young goat’ [ɓɔta] [ʤaŋka:re]
‘Small wall’ [ɓulel] [Dakkure:ru]
‘Arrow’ [kural] [biru:wal]
‘Spear’ [ga:wal] [ga:wal]
‘Younger’ [hiti:re] [pa:jɔ]
‘Youth’ [kiti:ɓe] [paiɗeɓe]
‘Sword’ [takɔ:bijɔl] [kaffahi]
‘Camel’ [gelɔba] [jɔga:]
‘Reminal milk’ [hɔra:nɔl-kɔsan] [siɓɓide]
‘Bird’ [t∫ɔle] [pɔle]
‘Morning rainfall’ [jɔ:desubana] [jafalfalde]
‘Axes’ [ʤambere] [ja:mbere]
‘Silchle’ [lauʤehi] [tura:wu]
‘Properties’ [paule] [are]
‘Morning’ [subana] [subaka]
‘What is going on’ [get∫t∫a] [haba:ru]
‘Hospital’ [asbitija:] [lɔkɔtɔrɔ:ru
‘Wife’ [dekira:wɔ] [ʤɔsu:du]
‘S’hit’ [t∫ille:] [bɔnne]
‘I look for him’ [mida:ri:mɔ] [mira:ri:mo]
‘I am going’ [midilli] [modilli]
‘Marriage’ [kɔ:gal] [kɔ:gal]
Groundnut’ [biri:ʤi] [biri:ʤi]
‘Groundnut oil’ [nebban-biri:ʤi] [nebban-biri:ʤi]
‘Bag’ [basu:] [basu:]
Amarontus’ [pɔlle:] [pɔlle:]
‘Door’ [gambuwal su:du] [gambuwal su:du]
‘Pap’ [bɔiri] [bɔiri]
‘Turban’ ‘[gu:hɔl] [gu:hɔl]
‘Amt’ [ju:jun] [ju:jun]
‘Air’ [hendu:] [hendu:]
Knife’ [laɓi:] [laɓi:]
‘Rumbus’ [be:bal] [be:bal]
‘Millet’ [gauri] [gauri]
‘Beggar’ [ahi:ʤɔ] [ahi:ʤɔ]
‘Beggars’ [ahi:ɓe] [ahi:ɓe]
‘Cap’ [kune:re] [hune:re]
‘Caps’ [kune:ʤe] [hune:ʤe]
Time’ [wakkat∫i:] [wakkat∫i:]
‘Cassette’ [beɗu:] [beɗu:]
‘Market’ [lu:mɔ] [lu:mɔ]
‘Rooster’ [zakara:ri] [zakara:ri]
‘Chair’ [kɔrɔwal] [kɔrɔwal]
‘Rag’ [tekkere] [tekkere]
‘Barber’ [fenbɔl] [penbɔl]
‘Teacher’ [mɔ:dibbɔ] [mɔ:dibbɔ]
‘Teachers’ [mɔ:diɓɓɔ] [mɔ:diɓɓɔ]
‘Brother’ [bandira:wɔ] [bandira:wɔ]
‘Friend’ [higintira:wɔ] [figintira:wɔ]
‘God’ [ʤɔ:mira:wɔ] [ʤɔ:mira:wɔ]
‘Prophet’ [anna:bi:ʤɔ] [anna:bi:ʤɔ]
‘Smoke’ [t∫u:ki] [t∫ur:ki]
‘Knock’ [da:de] [da:de]
‘Waist’ [lɔndu] [lɔndu]
‘Writing’ [bindɔ] [biŋdɔ]
‘Back’ [ɓa:wɔ] [ɓa:wɔ]
‘Ring’ [bet∫t∫e] [bet∫t∫e]
‘Teeth’ [ji:tce] [ji:tce]
‘Nose’ [hinere] [hinere]
‘Teaching’ [ʤanginɔl] [ʤanginɔl]
‘Stand up’ [?umma] [?umma]
‘Sit down’ [ʤɔ:ɗa] [ʤɔ:ɗa]
‘Paper’ [ɗe:rɔwɔl] [ɗe:rɔwɔl]
‘Go out’ [wurta-jasi] [wurta-jasi]
‘Go in’ [nattu-der] [nattu-der]
‘Water’ [dijan] [dijan]
‘Okro’ [takaje:ʤe] [takaje:ʤe]
‘Honey’ [ʤu:ri] [ʤu:ri]
‘Sleeping’ [ɗengɔl] [ɗa:nɔl]
‘Beans’ [jebbe] [jebbe]
The number of similarities in the two dialects involved in this study is:
The percentage of similarities is:
(188)^(2-1)/( (200) ) ×100/1=(188/200)^1×100/1=94%
From the percentage of similarities which is 94%, we deduced that there is an impressive degree of homogeneity with the dialects. For the sake of our analysis, we distinguished two groups of dialects.
In order to determine the relations between the dialects, we decide to consider the degree of similarities of pairs in a dialect with a view to obtaining the pairs of dialects which closely related to the ones that are further apart within and across the groups.
The number of similarities in Guru-mada fula dialect and other fula dialect is 94%.
The % of dissimilarity is as follows:
The percentage of dissimilarity is:
The % of dissimilarity = R^(n-1) = 100/1=
The time depth of the two dialects is:
t=(Log c)/(2Log r)×1000= (Log 94)/(2(Log 83))×1000=
(Log 0.94)/(2Log 0.83)×1000= (-0.0268)/2(-0.0809) ×1000=
(-0.0268)/(-0.1618)×1000 =165.63 years=165 years
The time depth indicates that the two dialects: Gurumada fula dialect and other fula dialect have separated approximately 165 years ago with a percentage of similarity of 94%.Therefore, the separation started since 1846 (2011not included).
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter summarises the previous chapters. It also draws conclusion from the findings which at the same constitute the discovery of the research.
However, recommendations are presented in line with the conclusion.
This research embarked on the survey of language variation of Rumdawa fula dialect (Guru-mada) and other fula speakears of Dakin-Gari, Suru Local Government Area, Kebbi state. Therefore, the research was divided into five chapters.
Chapter one dwelled mainly on introduction of the research, the aims and objectives of the research.
However, chapter two focuses on related literature of the study. Chapter three focus on methodology of data collection while chapter four is on data presentation and analysis.
Finally, the current chapter draws the end of the research with summary, conclusion and recommendations.
This investigation identifies two groups of fula dialect (Rundawa fula dialect and other fula dialect of Dakin-gari). This investigation further observes that there are a higher percentage of similarities among the two dialects. We observed the percentage of similarities of Rundawa fula dialects (Guru-mada) and other fula dialects as 94% with dissimilarity of just 6%.
From the foregoing discussion on the various chapters in this study, we realized a high degree of homogeneity among the dialects and a high degree of mutual-intelligibility among the speakers. Then, if the degree of dissimilarities is constant linguistically, the dialects will be completely different languages in the same language family. The condition can be reverted if the speaker decided to come together. The attitude of the speakers is a determinant factor in the dissimilarities similarities of the dialects.
The research is opinion that in order for the students of Language or any other interested researcher in the study of language particularly the Fulfulde dialects should first consider the variation and similarities among the dialects. Finally, the researcher recommends to the student of Language in the subject matter to take the following into consideration; as it would ease his/her work:
Form and structure of the language.
Greenberg, J. (1970). Language of African. The Hague Mouton.
Kidda, M. A. (1997). ‘Comparative texical and morphological study of Dera and Tangale’. University of Maiduguri.
Newman, P. (1977). ‘Chadic classification and reconstruction’ Afro-Asiatic Linguistic 5(1), 1-42.
Onwubiko, K. B. 91967). History of West Africa. Onitsha: Africana Educational Publishers Nig. Ltd.
Bashir, M. Sambo (1999). “Comparative Analysis of some lexical items in Kanuri and Teda’’ Arts and Socail Science Research Journal. Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna.
Ahmed, U. and B. Daura, (1970). An introduction to classical Hausa and major Dialects. Zaria NNPC.
The mapping of dialects on a regional basis had a long history in linguistics (see Pertzt (1980). Chambers and Trulgill, 1998 and Wakelin (1977)).
Nasiru Mu’azu project on the Inter group relationship in the twenty centuries in Dakin Gari.
Shitu Musa Tela on the Dukanci and C’Lela language.