ISMAIL ABDULKARIM IMAM
BILKISU UMAR MANI
MAIMUNA YAHAYA TONDI
AN UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELORS DEGREE IN SCIENCE EDUCATION, EDUCATION CHEMISTRY, DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCES AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND EXTENSION SERVICES USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY, SOKOTO.
This research project has been read critically and has been approved in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science degree in Education B.Sc (Ed) Chemistry in the faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo university sokoto
Mal. Aminu B. Katsayal
Prof. Ibrahim. Galadima
Head Department of science and vocational Education
Dr. Rabi Muhammad
We sincerely appreciate and thank the Almighty Allah for his mercies and tender kindness in all our academic endeavors. Without his grace, blessing this work will remain more a dream, our praise, glory and adoration is unto him.
Our special appreciation goes to our project supervisor in person of Mal. A. B. Katsayal for his guidance, attention, advice, encouragement, support and assistance towards the success of this research project may almighty ALLAH bless you, Our perents: Alh M. Kabiru Zubairu, Alh. Abdulkarim Imam Yunus, Alh Umar Ibrahim Ja`eh, Alh Yahaya Tondi, Alh Umar Mani who gave us opportunity to see the “ four walls” of the university and also made us to realized that there is joy in reading, so we pray to Allah to add more grace to their elbows and bestow in them inexhaustible blessing.
They were indeed a role model to us, and people whom we follow their footsteps with keen interest. They assisted us not only morally, but financially and always spoke well for our success.
Also we highly acknowledge our supervisor Mal. A. B. Katsayal for his selfless services, patience, maximum guide, necessary corrections and painstaking to read through the manuscripts of this project and in fact his contributions towards the successful completion of this project cannot be over emphasized, so we pray to Allah to add more grace to his elbow and bestow in him inexhaustible blessing.
We also acknowledge the efforts of the Dean faculty of Education and Extension Services and the Head of Department Science and Vocational Education Prof. I. Galadima. We also express our appreciation to our lecturers in persons of Prof. M.A. Wasagu, Prof. Kalgo, Prof. A.A. Salawu, Dr Rabi Muhammad, (late) Dr H.U. Mango may his soul rest in perfect peace, Malam Babangida and also the entire staff in the Department of Science and Vocational Education.
We also appreciate the good work of our lecturers in the Department of pure and applied chemistry in persons of Prof. L.G. Hassan, Prof A.A. Zuru, Dr K.J. Umar, Dr Birnin Yauri, Dr Dabai, Mal. Chika Muhammad, Mal. N.A. Sani, Mal. M.G. Liman and the entire lecturers of the faculty of Sciences. May Almighty Allah bless you all and guide you in your future endeavors (Ameen).
This study aimed at investigating the effect of teachers’ behavior in teaching chemistry on the academic achievement of chemistry students. A study of some selected secondary schools in sokoto metropolis. Four schools within the state metropolis were sampled for this research. Questionnaire was sampled for the purpose of this research. Questionnaire were designed and administered for both students and teachers of the sampled schools from where the data was collected for further analysis of the study. From the data collected, it could be deduce that teachers’ behavior is very delicate in ensuring students’ understanding and enhance good performance of chemistry students. The analysis shows that there are significant differences in behavior displayed by chemistry teachers in the classroom and also there are significant differences in the behavior displayed by the male and female chemistry teachers in classroom. Finally, base on the aforementioned problems, suggestions and recommendations were offered in the last chapter of this project (chapter five), so as to overcome the problems.
Background of the Study
Research appears to be making an increasing impact on our every day lives. In public discussions today evidence is considered to be important. We are unlikely to accept authoritative statements without some explanations, to prove the statement. As a result we are sometimes in danger of being swamped by facts. The trouble is that the facts can not always be trusted
Every profession requires its members to require certain specialized abilities and teaching is no exception (LUX, 1972). Among the specialized abilities expected of the classroom teacher to have are certain behaviours which promote both the learning of the subject (chemistry) and the student’s attitude. Teachers’ classroom interactions can be analyzed in order to obtain information on how effective is the learning in the classroom and selection of teaching method from which to develop and control their behaviour in a continuing programme of self development.
There was the need for using different methods in teaching different groups of students. For instance in teaching chemistry the teacher needs to have a practical class for his students and therefore in this class demonstration method is applied rather than lecture or discovery method.
However, the only way to find out different method is to observe their behaviour in different ability levels in selection of methodology of teaching; the teacher has to bear in his mind:
How should science be taught?
What teaching methods would be suitable in liking up what is purely theoretically training and strictly practical apprenticeship?
What is the role of small group discussion, the classroom demonstration, the individual laboratory experiment and audio-visual aid in chemistry teaching?
There are basically several methods of observing chemistry teachers, two of these are:
Interaction analysis and
Tropological studies (step by step observation based on record)
It’s generally accepted that an application and understanding of education events is essential to any analysis of educational process. Teachers should analyze their classroom interaction in order to obtain effective learning, especially their own acts of teaching behaviour.
Statement of Problem
For many years, now there have been expressed concerns about the problems faced by most of the chemistry teachers in secondary schools. Such problems include in sufficient training, inadequate facilities, poor teaching techniques, and inappropriate language of communications. It has been observed that for many years science secondary school students use to have massive failure in their chemistry examinations both terminal and school leaving examinations (SSCE). Inview, of this now the researchers are interested in finding out the cause of that massive failure, Taking into consideration the effect of teachers behavior.
Chemistry, like many other science subjects require a lot of skills for effective and successful teaching. The problems of teaching chemistry are not recent issues but have existed since the introduction of the subject in the school curriculum. The major complaints in teaching chemistry have always been associated with the behaviour of the teachers towards chemistry. Among the noted teachers’ behaviour are:
Domination of the class by the teacher alone.
Inappropriate language of communication.
Discouraging the students to ask questions.
Lateness and abstinence of the teachers from their lessons.
As a result of this, the researchers therefore aim at looking into the effects of behaviour of teachers during the teaching of chemistry on the academic achievement of chemistry students and at the end suggest possible solutions for effective teaching and learning of chemistry.
Objective of the Study
The objectives of the research are to find out the effect of teachers behavior in teaching chemistry on the academic achievement of chemistry students in sokoto metropolis. The study will try:
To find out the behaviuor displayed by chemistry teachers in classroom.
To find out if there is any difference between the behaviuor displayed by male and female chemistry teachers.
In this study, the effect of teachers’ behavior in teaching chemistry on the academic achievement of chemistry students will be studied in the following questions:
1. What are the behaviors displayed by the chemistry teachers in classroom?
2. What are the differences between the behaviors displayed by male and female chemistry teachers?
In this research the following hypothesis will be tested.
There are no significant differences in behavior displayed by chemistry teachers in classroom.
There are no significant differences between the behavior displayed by male and female chemistry teachers.
Significance of the Study
Any venture into the problem of teaching and learning is a step further in the advancement of education. Therefore this study is expected to be of help to the chemistry teachers in improving teaching/learning situation in secondary schools. Its also hoped that it will motivate them to be more creative and more interested in chemistry teaching. In addition, it is also hoped that this survey would help the school administrators and the policy makers in Sokoto state and the federation at large to improve their services to the schools if the recommendations given by the researchers implemented.
Moreover, it will also help in understanding various problems affecting the teaching of chemistry so as to make necessary corrections as the future of our youth depends on the background we are able to provide for them and it is on this background that they are going to be developed.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This research project is limited to secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis Sokoto state of Nigeria. The study could not be able to cover the entire state due to the time factor and financial problems. The study is also limited to chemistry subject; it covered S.S II of the secondary schools. And the study will cover the chemistry teachers of the secondary schools and their students.
Classroom observation has been recognized as an important instrument for finding out the nature of classroom interactions and teachers behavior.And the effect of the teacher’s behavior on the academic performance of the student. The present study will adopt the direct approach to find out the level of interaction between the teacher and his pupils in the classroom.
By 1950, most Nigerian Secondary Schools were offering General science in one form or the other but the general trend was to offer General science up to the school certificate examination partly because of the lack of Science Teachers in single subject areas and mostly because of lack of resources needed to teach basic science up to school certificate level. However, by the mid 1950,s general science in Nigerian schools began to experience a failure as an approach to science Education. General Science was taught during the first 3 years of secondary education while during the last 3 years students are allowed to choose two to three basic sciences depending on their abilities.
The program of science curriculum development which began in 1960,s and confined into the present decade has made available a wider range of resources, materials and techniques than at any time in the past.
Many of the equipment developed for school science teaching are expensive and required regular and skilled maintenance for their working life to be maximized. Others may be improvised as required from material, which are commonly available.
2.2 Concept of chemistry
Chemistry is an active, evolving science that has a vital importance in our world, in both the realm of nature and the realm of society.
Chemistry: is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Chemistry is often called the central science, because a basic knowledge of chemistry is essential for students of Biology, physic and geology, ecology and many others subjects, indeed, it is central to our way of life; without it, we would be living shorter lives in what we would consider primitive conditions, without automobiles, electricity, computers, CDs, and many other everyday conveniences.
Although chemistry is an ancient science, its modern foundation was laid in the 19th century, when intellectual and technological advances enable scientists to breakdown substances into ever smaller component and consequently to explain many of their physical and chemical characteristics. The rapid development of increasingly sophisticated technology throughout the 20th century has given as even greater means to study things that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Using computers and the special microscopes, for example, chemists can analyze the structure of atoms and molecules in the fundamental units on which the study of chemistry is based and designed new substances with specific properties, such as drugs and environmentally friendly consumer product. In considering the importance of teaching chemistry in secondary schools, two things come to mind.
The need to attract many young Nigerians to a career in which chemistry plays an important role.
The role which chemistry plays in the totality of experiences essentially to educating citizens.
Nigeria is a country, which is over dependent on oil. A latest statistics shows that about 94% of our source of income now derives from oil which is being taped at almost 445000 barrels a day (Google, 2011). This is an absolute source. The exploration and processing of oil and other related products such as: Fertilizer is needed in to expand our agricultural sector thus keeping down the rate of food importation. In this country land for farming is not a problem as two third our arable land is uncultivated. Once our agricultural techniques are mechanized and fertilizers are produced locally, we can produce enough food for our people.
Chemistry can be seen in oil refineries and in chemical industries where cosmetics, soap, perfumes, plastics, glass, pesticides and dyes are made. Chemistry stands as the central position among the basic sciences.
In retrospect, the definition of chemistry has changed overtime, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. Shown below are some of the standard definitions used by various chemists. Bruce (1999) chemistry is the science of matter, especially its properties, structure, behaviors, reactions, interactions and chemical changes it undergoes; its sometime called “central science” because it connects physics with other natural sciences.
2.3 Teachers behavior in teaching chemistry
Smith(1995) defined teacher behavior or expressiveness as ability of the teacher to communicate to students through the use of appropriate words, gestures and looks. Babalola(2000) describes teacher-behaviour or effectiveness in terms of four observable behaviours, which include :
Eye contact and
Smith (1995) opined that teaching-behaviour brings about positive classroom interaction; invariably arouse students’ interest and motivation to learn even difficult topics, irrespective of gender. Antell(1991) noted that the use of eye or appropriate eye contact stimulates and alert the students. Smith (1995) discovered that gazing at students promotes their attentiveness and involvement and positive regard for the teacher.
In this section we are trying to explore those factors that make a teacher effective. Recent research reveals that most variation in overall school effectiveness is due to classroom level factors rather than school level factors. For these reasons it is important to try to identify what makes an effective teacher.
According to Creemers (1994). Aspects of teaching include:
Having a positive attitude
The development of pleasant social/psychological climate in the classroom.
Having high expectation of what pupils can achieve.
Effective time management.
Strong lesson lecturing.
The use of variety of teaching methods.
Using and incorporate pupils’ ideas.
Using appropriate and varied questioning.
In view, of the foregoing discussion, it is necessary to find out whether the use of expressive teaching behavior can affect the achievement of chemistry students.
2.4 Teaching and Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools
Every profession requires its members to quire certain specialized abilities and teaching of chemistry is no exception. A professional chemistry teacher must perform the “work of teaching”, we mean the core tasks that teachers must execute to help pupils learn. These includes activities carried on both inside and beyond the classroom, such as leading a discussion solutions to calculations like volumetric analysis and steichiometry, probing students’ answer, reviewing material for a chemistry test, listening to and assessing students’ oral reading, explaining an interpretation of scientific or chemical terms, talking with parents, evaluating students’ papers, planning and creating and maintaining an orderly and supportive environment for learning. The work of teaching in includes broad cultural competence and relational sensitivity, communication skills and the combination of rigor and imagination fundamentals to effective practice.
Teaching behavior are extremely important for successful teaching and learning of chemistry as a subject, skillful teaching requires appropriately using and interactively specific moves and activities in particular cases and contexts, based no knowledge and understanding of one’s pupils and on the application of professional impediment. This in titration also depends on opportunities to practice and to measure one’s performance against exemplars.
Fischler and Zimmer (1968), research, has great relevance to this study in that, same observational format were adopted in both studies. But instead of using a trained observer, the researchers does the recording themselves. Moreover, their research was specifically designed for teaching of General Science. This one at hand is only designed for the teaching of chemistry. Nevertheless, they agree that their work requires further refinement, of course, it what this project aimed at.
Flanders (1960) analyzed teaching behavior and found the interaction between the teacher and his pupil, and how it can be improved. The purpose of his study is keeping trait to selected events occurring during classroom interaction. It was with the aid of this fact that classroom climate containing the sequence of behavior. Several items were including in Flander’s interaction analysis categories. They include:
Praises or encourages
Use ideas of students
Criticizing or justifying authority
Pupil talk initiation
Silence, or confusion
Using the system of ten categories shown above, the researcher at the end of each three seconds periods decide which category best represent the communication of behavior during that three seconds interval, he write down the numbers of that categories while observing.
Flanders ten categories is now called the flanders interaction categories analysis (F.I.C.A) which includes verbal and non-verbal behaviors. He came out with the result that predominantly was found to exist in class room which had slightly higher measuring of initial ability. Flanders (1960) work is related to the research at hand because he used an observational instrument in doing his research. However, his research was concern with pupils’ interaction while the one at hand is based mainly on effect of teachers’ behaviour in teaching chemistry. Furthermore, we are of the opinion that the three seconds intervals for recording observational changes in behaviour was rather too small to record any reliable behaviour changes without overlapping.
2.5 Chemistry Education.
As mentioned earlier, every profession requires its member to acquire certain specialized abilities, for them to be well fitted into the system of chemistry as a subject, requires professional teachers to teach it in secondary schools in order to have a better comprehension by the students for optimal achievement of aims and objectives of teaching and learning process. It generally accepted that understanding and application of classroom event is essential to any analysis of educational process.
The chemistry teachers should be trained to achieve all these in his interaction with people. The teacher here is expected to behave well because he is a role model to his students, through both his words and actions. By who are you, you provide a personal widow for the student on a possible future. Your ethical, scientific, and professional behaviour all leave a strong impression on students, as dose you’re attitude toward your work. Community feeling about your professional career. Share your frustrations as well as your enthusiasm then something excites you tell your students why.
Adams (1971), in his sociological approach to classroom research shown that classroom is a remarkably busy environment.
According to his finding teachers do not readily accepted their role in classrooms. They either tend to withdraw from the situation or take active and central parts. In addition he differentiates between male and female teachers and their ages. He pointed out that male teachers are more dominant than female teachers. On the other hand, older teachers were more authoritative than their younger colloquies. The study also looked at the other essential elements in classroom situation, which is students and teaching.
This is by far the most striking and important project, as it does not only observe chemistry teachers but precisely discriminate their behavior based on sex and age.
Shu’aibu (1979) develops a science teacher observational schedule aimed at measuring the teaching approaches of teachers in science classroom in Kaduna state. He used expletory, teacher demonstration, discussions, students demonstrative, experimentation, problem solving and inquiring/discovery, all these were coded and placed on a continuing according to the extent students participations in each case, Furthermore, a column was created methods not identifiable with other case, as well as three others relating to the extent that science process skills were employed.
The time involved was five minutes and optimum duration within which a teacher could manifest a behavior that could be recorded in any of the categories mentioned.
Shu’aibu (1979) observed that out of (57) science teachers in Kaduna state that most teachers displayed expository behavior in teaching most of the time than any other approach in the rank earlier mentioned.
The relevance of his work to this under investigation is the point fact that teachers predominates the class with expository behaviours which is very important of behaviours exhibited by their teacher in the classroom. It also makes the students to be passive not active in the class. It also causes lack of concentration by the students their by distracting their attention. It inculcates negative behaviour in the student. It will account for poor performance which is a negative achievement.
2.6 Material in Teaching Chemistry.
It has been observed that the use of teaching aids was seriously neglected in the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools (Okpala,1975), noticing this idea mentioned that the use of teaching materials in facilitating changing and improving teaching and learning process was not receiving any adequate attention in Nigerian Secondary Schools by the government.In adequate practical skills of the teachers and laziness.
Umar (1975) analyzed and evaluate the teaching of biology in Kano State. He also used questionnaire interview, and observation to identify certain behaviours. He came out with the result that only few schools have a well equipped laboratory and most teachers neglect the use of audio-visual materials even when available. Both works use observational schedule but he adopted or used questionnaire interview. The use of interviews and questionnaire will not give adequate in sight in to the behaviours of these teachers because some of them my not supply the actual information’s concerning their through behaviours during classroom teaching.
The present work aimed at finding the affect and resolving the above problem through careful observation and recording of these teachers’ behaviours during some of their lesson.
This chapter presents the methods and procedures used in carrying out the study. This is an indebt research on the effect of teachers’ behavior in the teaching of chemistry on the academic achievement of chemistry students. The following sub-heading would be discussed in it.
Sample and sampling techniques
Validity of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Administration of the research instrument
Procedure for data analysis
3.2 Research design
This study is a descriptive research. Nwana (1981) refers descriptive research as the best method which includes the use of questionnaire or interviews in the collection of data. The research would use questionnaire to obtain information needed for this study. To identify the strength of the responses to various questions, percentage would be calculated and all the data obtained would be analyzed.
3.3 Population of the study
This study was to find out the effect of teachers behavior on the academic achievement of chemistry students in secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis Sokoto state. The chemistry teachers and the senior students from all the secondary schools in sokoto metropolis form the population of the study.
3.4 Sample and sampling techniques
Four science secondary schools out of five science secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis were selected for this study. The criterion for the selection of the schools was random sampling. The sampled schools are:
NAGARTA COLLEGE SOKOTO.
NANA GOVT. SEC. SCH. SOKOTO.
SULTAN ABUBAKAR SECONDARY SCHOOLS SOKOTO.
GOVERNMENT TECHNICAL COLLEGE RUNJIN SAMBO SOKOTO.
These are the characteristics features of the schools that we are interested in:
Table: 3.1 Sample of the population of the study
S/No Name of the schools No. of chemistry teachers Sex of the teachers Public or Private Mixed or single No. of SSII students
1 Nagarta college sokoto 4 3 Male, 1 Female Public Boys 20
2 Nana Girls Govt. sec. sch. sokoto 2 2 Male Public Girls 20
3 Sultan Abubakar sec. sch. Sokoto 2 1 Male, 1 Female Public Boys 20
4 Govt.Tech. College R/ Sambo 2 2 Male Public Boys 20
TOTAL 4 10 6 Males, 2 Female All public 3 Boys, 1 Girls schools 80
The reason why we choose public schools is because they are close to our reach, and they are under the control of the government, so we expect implementation of our findings there with immediate effect.
The researchers on reacting to the schools mentioned above collected the time table from each of the classes observed from the teachers concerned. Stratified random sampling was used to collect our sample study. Also twenty students were collected from each of the schools mentioned above by random sampling, totaling eighty students. The teachers also would help to respond to the questionnaire provided by the researchers. Two teachers were selected from Govt. Tech. College, nana Girls Govt. sec. sch. Sultan Abubakar and four teachers from Nana Girls Govt. sec. sch. totaling Ten teachers from the sampled schools were given the questionnaire.
In educational research the research instrument are use to obtain information into stable data. Such information is then converted to scores depending on the nature of the data and purpose for which they are set. For the purpose of this research, Questionnaire was used as the instrument of data collection.
Questionnaire: The main instrument of data collection is the questionnaires. Two questionnaires were design sets, one for teacher and one for students. The questionnaires were structures and designed in order to give room for free expression of view and options were given for some fixed responses such as YES or NO.
Students’ questionnaire: The questionnaire will be administered to students who had taken and studied science subjects in senior secondary schools. Those students were chosen because the researchers felt that they would be in a better position to respond to the questionnaire very well to the expectations of the researchers.
The questionnaire is divided into section A and section B, the section A consist of personal data of the students, such questions such as school, sex of the students and age of the students were asked. The section B consists of the main part of the questionnaire, such questions such as, do you like chemistry subject? Were asked.
The questionnaire consist of seventeen questions relating to their sex, level of difficulty of science, student seriousness when preparing for science lesson and the suitability of time of teaching and learning. The questionnaire will personally bed administered to the students by the researchers.
In the development of the questionnaire; some questions like student’s interest in the chemistry subject and Teachers’ behavior, availability of laboratory facilities attendance of science club, availability of teachers and readability of science textbooks were asked. Adequacy of science lesson periods, motivation from teachers, and assistance by the teachers for the students to use the science equipment e.t.c. was included.
Teachers’ questionnaire: The questionnaire was divided into sections A & B, the section A consist of the personal data and section B consist of the main part of the questionnaire which was designed for chemistry teachers consisting of twenty one questions relating to general information like qualification, teaching experience, conditions of laboratories and workshops, readability of textbooks, attitudes of students to chemistry subjects, adequacy of science lesson periods, performance of students by the teachers to use science apparatus e.t.c.
3.6 Pilot testing
The Questionnaire was tested in two secondary schools out of four sampled secondary schools. The researchers carefully choose two teachers and twenty students from the two secondary schools.
The schools are:
1. Technical college Wammako
2. University secondary schools Sokoto.
3.7 Validity of the instrument
By validity it means the degree to which the measuring instruments used in the data collection actually serve the purpose intended, Galadima (2009). To ensure validity of the instrument the questionnaire was given to the supervisor for moderation, as such items that are required are fully used and those that are not required are removed, and approve as good enough to solicit information needed for the study.
3.8 Reliability of the instrument
Galadima (2009) states that ‘’Reliability of any test is concerned with the consistency of the measurement’’. The instrument adopted for this research was found reliable based on the information obtained in the pilot testing and the questionnaire will be re-tested in the full scale research. Using Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient we find out that the reliability indexes of the teachers’ and students’ questionnaires are 0.75 and 0.79 respectively which makes the instrument to be reliable and the relationship is very high.
3.9 Administration of the research instrument
The researchers will administer the questionnaire in the selected secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis.
A total of 90 questionnaires will be administered to 10 teachers and 80 students from four selected schools. All will be retrieved from the respondents and were used for data analysis.
3.10 Procedure for the data analysis
For the purpose of data analysis simple statistical tools will be used in most cases, frequency in tabular form and percentage would be used. This is necessary because the data obtained is qualitative and fixed.
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the analysis on the data collected on the effects of teachers’ behavior on the academic achievement of chemistry students in Sokoto metropolis, Sokoto state.
Data was gathered through the administration of questionnaires on the subject from the four secondary schools. The data gathered were presented in tabular form and were interpreted at the end of each table.
Analysis was based on the responses gathered from 90 samples (80 chemistry students and 10 chemistry teachers) in Sokoto metropolis, Sokoto state.
4.2 Analysis of the data collected
The data for this research was gathered using the responses of the questionnaire. 90 questionnaires (80 chemistry students and 10 chemistry teachers) were distributed to the respondents and collected accordingly, for analysis using percentages.
Research question one: This research question is analyzed based on the responses of the students
Table of responses of the students about: What are the behaviors displayed by chemistry teachers in classroom?
Table 4.1: behavior displayed by chemistry teachers in classroom.
s/no Options Frequency of those that responded (YES) Percentage Frequency of those that responded (NO) Percentage Total of the frequencies.
1. Did your chemistry teacher behave in a polite manner in the classroom? 44 55% 36 45% 80
2. Did your chemistry teacher behave harshly in the classroom? 7 8.75% 73 91.25% 80
3. Did your chemistry teacher behave moderately in the classroom? 29 36.25% 51 63.75% 80
Table 4.1 shows that 55% of the students observed that their teachers behave in a polite manner in their teaching. While, 45% of the students are of the view that there chemistry teachers do not behave in a polite manner. The greater percentage of the students observed that there chemistry teachers are behaving in a polite manner of behavior in their teaching and these make students to feel free to ask questions and contribute in the lesson, thereby improving their performance.
8.75% of the students observed their chemistry teachers behave in a harshly manner in the classroom. While, 91.25% of the students deviates from the later percentage by observing that there chemistry teachers are not behaving in a harshly manner in the classroom. The greater percentage of the students observed that, their chemistry teachers are not behaving in a harshly manner in the classroom.
While 36.25% of the students observed that, their chemistry teachers behave in a moderately manner in their classroom. While, 63.75% of the students are of the opinion that, there chemistry teachers are not behaving in a moderately manner in their classroom. The greater percentage are those that observed that their chemistry teachers do not behave in a moderately manner in the classroom. And this makes the students to be passive in their lessons and hence favors negative performance.
4.3.2 Researches question one: This research question is analyzed based on the responses of the Teachers.
1. What are the behaviors displayed by chemistry teachers in classroom?
Table. 4.2. Different type of behavior displayed by chemistry teachers.
S/No Options Frequency of friendly Percentage Frequency of harshly Percentage Frequency of moderately Percentage Total of the frequencies
1 What type of behavior did you display in classroom? 3 30% 2 20% 5 50% 10
Table 4.4 shows that 30% of the chemistry teachers displayed friendly behavior in their classroom. While, 20% of the chemistry teachers displayed harshly behavior in their classroom and 50% percent of the chemistry teachers displayed moderately mannered behavior in the classroom. The greater percentage of chemistry teachers are those that behave moderately in their classroom. And this will help the students to understand and not to use their manner of friendly behavior as granted.
4.3.3 Researches question Two: Research question was analyzed based on the students’ responses. What are the differences between the behavior displayed by male and female chemistry teachers?
Table 4.3: Differences in behavior displayed by male and female chemistry teachers in classroom.
S/No Options Frequency (YES) Percentage Frequency (NO) Percentage Total of the frequencies.
1. Did female chemistry teachers manifest good behavior in class? 9 11.25% 71 88.75% 80
2. Did male chemistry teachers manifest good behavior in class? 40 50% 40 50% 80
3. Did your female chemistry teacher encourage you to ask questions? 10 12.50% 70 87.5% 80
4. Did your male chemistry teacher encourage you to ask questions? 68 85%
12 15% 80
This shows that 11.25% of the students are of the view that, female chemistry teachers manifest good behavior in the classroom. While, 88.75% of the students are of the view that, there female chemistry teachers do not manifest good behavior in the classroom. The greater percentage observed that, female chemistry teachers do not manifest good behavior in the classroom. And these will decreases the understanding of the lesson and hence diminish the performance of the students.
50% of the students are of the view that, male chemistry teachers manifest good behavior in classroom. While, 50% of the students are of the view that, there male chemistry teachers do not manifest good behavior in the classroom. This means there is equal responses based on male chemistry teachers’ manifestation of good behavior in the classroom. And hence improve their performance.
12.50% of the students are of the view that there female chemistry teachers encourage them to ask questions in the classroom. While, 87.50% of the students are of the view that there female chemistry teachers do not encourage them to ask questions in the classroom. And lack of asking questions decreases the level of understanding of the students and hence favors poor performance.
15% of the students are of the view that their male chemistry teachers do not encourage them to ask questions, while, 85% of the students are of the view that their male chemistry teachers encourage them to ask question in the classroom. And this shows that the greater percentage of the male chemistry teachers encourage their students to ask questions and will improve their understanding and hence, favors positive performance.
4.3.4 Research question Two: This research question is analyzed based on the responses of the Teachers.
2. What are the differences in behavior displayed by male and female chemistry teachers in the class?
This research question is analyzed based on the responses of the Teachers.
Table 4.4: Differences in the behavior displayed by male and female chemistry teachers in teaching.
S/No Options Frequency of those that responded (YES) Percentage Frequency of those that responded (NO) Percentage Total of the frequencies
1. Do you think female teachers are more dedicated in teaching chemistry? 3 30% 7 70% 10
2. Do you think male teachers are more dedicated in teaching chemistry? 7 70% 3 30% 10
Table 4.4 shows that 30% of the teachers believed that female chemistry teachers are more dedicated in their teaching and 70% of the teachers believe that female chemistry teachers are not dedicated in their teaching. While, 70% of the teachers believe that male chemistry teachers are more dedicated in their teaching and 30% of the teachers believe that chemistry teachers are not dedicated in their teaching.
This shows that 70% of the male chemistry teachers are more dedicated than their female counterpart in teaching chemistry, this will make the students to be active in class, understand the lesson and perform better in their school.
4.4 Tests for the Hypotheses
In the test for hypotheses we consider the students’ responses only because the responses of the students will give more qualified result than the teachers, because the teachers may give false statements in order to favor his self.
4.4.1 Test for the hypothesis one
The hypothesis stated that, there are no significant differences in the behavior displayed by chemistry teachers in classroom in Sokoto metropolis. To test for this hypothesis, the scores were grouped into the sampled schools in which the responses are tabulated as shown below: And this was calculated using chi-square.
Table 4.5: Table for Finding out the differences in behavior displayed by chemistry teachers in classroom.
Variables N.C.S N.G.S.S.S S.A.S.S.S G.T.C R/S TOTAL
Politely mannered teachers 10 (11) 12 (11) 8 (8.8) 14 (13.2) 44
Moderately mannered teachers 8 (7.25) 7 (7.25) 5 (5.8) 9 (8.7) 29
Harshly mannered teachers 2 (1.75) 1 (1.75) 3 (1.4) 1 (2.1) 7
TOTAL 20 20 16 24 80
To find the significance of the differences in the behaviors displayed by chemistry teachers in classroom, we apply the chi-square formulae:
X2 =∑ ( Fo – Fe ) 2
Where, Fo is the observed frequency.
Fe is the expected frequency and the values are enclosed in a parenthesis.
N.C.S, is the Nagarta college sokoto
N.G.S.S.S, is the Nana Govt. Sec. Sch. Sokoto
S.A.S.S.S, is the Sultan Abubakar Secondary School Sokoto
G.T.C is the Govt. Tech. College Sokoto
And to calculate the frequency expected is:
(Column total-row total)/(Grand total)
Table 4.6: Solution of the chi-square formulae.
Fo Fe Fo – Fe (Fo – Fe)2 (Fo – Fe) 2 ̸ Fe
10 11 -1 1.000 0.09
12 11 1 1.000 0.09
8 8.8 -0.8 0.640 0.07
14 13.2 0.8 0.640 0.05
8 7.25 0.75 0.563 0.08
7 7.25 -0.25 0.063 0.08
5 5.8 -0.8 0.640 0.11
9 8.7 0.3 0.090 0.01
2 1.75 0.25 0.063 0.04
1 1.75 -0.75 0.563 0.32
3 1.4 1.6 2.560 1.83
1 2.1 -1.1 1.210 0.58
The degree of freedom is 6, at 0.05 level of significance is 0.829
Since the calculated chi-square is 3.28 which is greater than critical Chi-square which is 0.829.
The interpretation of the result shows that there are significant differences in the behavior displayed by the chemistry teachers in classroom.
4.4.2 Test for Hypothesis Two:
The hypothesis stated that, there are no significant differences between the behavior displayed by female and male chemistry teachers in class in sokoto metropolis. To test for the hypothesis, the scores were grouped into the sampled schools in which the responses are tabulated as shown below: And this was calculated using chi-square.
Table 4.7: Table for finding out the differences between the behavior displayed by male and female chemistry teachers in classroom.
Variables N.C.S N.G.S.S.S S.A.S.S G.T.C R/S TOTAL
Male chemistry teachers manifest good behavior 11 (11.03) 17 (15.31) 13 (12.86) 8 (9.8) 49
Female chemistry teachers manifest good
Behavior 2 (2.03) 3 (2.81) 1 (2.36) 3 (1.80) 9
Female teachers encourage students to ask questions 3 (2.70) 2 (3.75) 4 (3.15) 3 (2.40) 12
Male chemistry teachers encourage students to ask questions 2 (2.25) 3 (3.13) 3(2.63) 2(2.00) 10
Total 18 25 21 16 80
To find the significance of the differences in the behaviors displayed by female and male chemistry teachers in classroom in sokoto metropolis, we apply the chi-square formulae:
X2 =∑ ( Fo – Fe ) 2
Where, Fo is the observed frequency and Fe is the expected frequency and the values are enclosed in a parentheses.
N.C.S, is the Nagarta college Sokoto, N.G.S.S.S, is the Nana Govt. Sec. Sch. Sokoto, S.A.S.S.S, is the Sultan Abubakar Secondary School Sokoto and G.T.C is the Govt. Tech. College Sokoto.
And to calculate the frequency expected is:
(Column total-row total)/(Grand total)
Table 4.8: Solution of the chi-square formulae.
Fo Fe Fo – Fe (Fo – Fe)2 (Fo – Fe) 2 ̸ Fe
11 11.03 -0.03 0.0009 0.00008
17 15.31 1.69 2.8561 0.18651
13 12.86 0.14 0.0196 0.00152
8 9.80 -1.80 3.2400 0.33061
2 2.03 -0.03 0.0009 0.00044
3 2.81 0.19 0.0361 0.01285
1 2.36 -1.36 1.8496 0.78373
3 1.80 1.20 1.4400 0.80000
3 2.70 0.30 0.0900 0.03333
2 3.75 -1.75 3.0625 0.81667
4 3.15 0.85 0.7225 0.22936
3 2.40 0.60 0.3600 0.15000
2 2.25 -0.25 0.0625 0.02778
3 3.13 -0.13 0.0169 0.00539
3 2.63 0.37 0.1369 0.05205
2 2.00 0 0 0
The degree of freedom is 9, at 0.05 level of significance is 0.829
Since the calculated chi-square is 3.43 which are greater than critical Chi-square which is 0.829.
The interpretation of the result shows that there are significant differences between the behavior displayed by female and male chemistry teachers in classroom.
4.4 Discussion for the hypotheses.
This state that there is no significant difference in the behavior displayed by the chemistry teachers in classroom in secondary schools within sokoto metropolis
To test for the hypothesis chi- square is applied and the output is obtained which shows that differences in the behavior by the teachers which include polite manner, harsh and moderately.
And from our research we find out that there is no significant difference in the behavior displayed by the chemistry teachers in classroom in secondary schools within sokoto metropolis which is in line with the research finding of Antell (1991) who conducted a research on Correlations of selective affecting behaviors with performance in biology courses for elementary teachers which in his research opined that teaching – behavior brings about positive classroom interaction so also in our research finding, we find out that effective teachers’ behavior brings about good performance of the students. And all this researches are suggesting that effective teacher’s behavior will lead to good performance of students.
From our research we find out that there are no significant differences between the behavior displayed by female and male chemistry teachers in classes of secondary schools within sokoto metropolis and this is contradicting the research finding of Shu’aibu (1979) who develop a science teacher observational schedule aimed at measuring the teaching behavior of teachers in science classrooms in Kaduna state and point out that most of the female teachers displays expository behavior in teaching but in our own research we find out that there is no significant difference in their behavior.
4.5 Summary of the major findings.
The findings were made from the questionnaire distributed to obtain information on the effects of teachers behavior in teaching chemistry on the academic achievement of chemistry students in Sokoto metropolis .It has been clearly stated that the behavior displayed by the chemistry teachers in the classroom were clearly analyzed and find out that:
There are significant differences in the behavior displayed by the chemistry teachers in classroom.
There are significant differences between the behavior displayed by female and male chemistry teachers in classroom.
The male chemistry teachers displayed good behavior than their female counterparts.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter contains the major discussion, summary of the major findings, conclusion and some recommendations, based on the findings for further research.
The present survey has thrown some light on the issue of effect of teachers’ behavior on the academic achievement of chemistry students. The research work was also able to find out, the significant differences in the behavior displayed by the chemistry teachers in classroom and significant differences in the behavior displayed by female and male chemistry teachers in classroom.
From the chapter one we try to shed light on the objectives of our study and the significance of the study and state clearly the hypothesis and our research question in order to set direction to our study.
In the chapter two we try to explain the variables we have in our study, i.e. the general literature review. There we discuss about the concept of chemistry, Teachers behavior in teaching chemistry, teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools within Sokoto metropolis, chemistry education and lastly the materials in teaching chemistry.
In chapter three, we discuss about how we design our research, research population, sample and sampling techniques, instrument, pilot testing, validity of the instrument, reliability of the instrument, how we administer the instrument and the procedure we applied for the data analysis.
In chapter four, we present our data, analyze the data and discuss about the data analyzed. We analyze the research questions we have and the hypothesis we made based on students’ responses and teachers responses and comment on the decisions about our hypotheses and find out there significance.
This research coined out on the effects of teachers behavior in teaching chemistry on the academic achievement of chemistry student in Sokoto metropolis.
The data analyzed in chapter four, have shown clearly that there are significant differences in the behavior displayed by the chemistry teachers in classroom, this means that good behavior displayed by the chemistry teachers influence and motivate students’ learning.
Moreover, since there are significant differences in the behavior displayed by female and male chemistry teachers in classroom, which shows that the male chemistry teachers displayed good behavior than their female counterpart.
However, we observed that there is limited number of chemistry teachers in the secondary schools within Sokoto metropolis.
So, If the schools authorities will not to met their goals and objectives in the school they have to work hard to see that each teacher have displayed a good behavior in his lesson in both the genders with the school and at home since they are the role model of their students.
However, good behavior and interpersonal relationship of chemistry teachers influence positively towards the academic achievement of the students.
The researchers make the following recommendations based on the findings of the study as:
(1).The schools administrators should ensure that every teacher is manifesting a good behavior in the school because they are serving as a role model to their student.
(2).The government should ensure that every science teacher is attending science workshop on teacher-student interpersonal relationship organized by the ministry of education within or outside the state in order to improve their teaching behavior.
(3) Parents and teachers should be more responsible to the moral and educational upbringing of their children or students and watch their movements with peer group so as to stop them from joining bad company.
(4) The federal ministry of education should strive to establish guidance and counseling unit in all secondary schools for proper counseling and guidance to the students.
(5) The school administrators should setup a supervisory committee to check the teachers’ behavior in the classroom and make proper corrections to the negative behaviors.
(6) The school authority should prohibit any act of indecent dressing of the teachers especially the female teachers.
5.5 Suggestions for further studies
The importance of laboratory practical cannot be overemphasized, so therefore it’s important for other researchers to conduct a research on the effects of laboratory equipment on the academic achievement of chemistry students.
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