AN APPRAISAL OF PRIMARY SIX PUPILS’ BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS (MEASUREMENT AND COMMUNICATION) ACQUISITION.

A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS
BY
IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD
NASIRU BALA
ABDUL KARIM UMAR AL-HASSAN
ABUBAKAR TSALHATU YABO
IBRAHIM ILYASU

A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND EXTENSION SERVICES, USMAN DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY, SOKOTO, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN EDUCATION (B.Sc. Ed.).
APPROVAL PAGE
This project study on an appraisal of primary six pupils basic science skills (measurement and communication) acquisition in Sokoto metropolis has been read and approved to have met the requirements for the award of B. Sc. Ed. in the department of Science and Vocational Education of the Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto.
Project Supervisor
Mr. Matthew Cyri
Project Coordinator
Dr. Rabi Muhammad

Head of Department
Prof. A. I. Galadima

DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to Almighty God, to whom we belong and to whom we shall return. And to our beloved parents.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research work could not have been possible, except for the hands that have stretched out to us in a cooperative attitude.
Our utmost gratitude goes to the Almighty for seeing us through huddles we encountered in the course of carrying out this project and the life in general. We equally want to acknowledge our great ever conscious Supervisor Mr. Matthew Cyril for his interest to supervise our research work.
Finally, our profound appreciation goes to all the staff of Faculty of education and Extension Services and Science and Vocational Education Department, especially to the Dean and the Head of Department, Prof. A. I. Galadima, Project Coordinator, Dr. Rabi Muhammad, and others for devoting their time, experience and energy which contributed immensely to the beauty of this research work.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction
Science in our modern age has become universally recognized as the major factor for technological, economical and social development of any nation, Cookey Gam (1987). Any nation that is serious about improving the life of its citizens can not throw away or toy with science education. This being the case, the thirty six states of the federation have realized the importance of science in schools and colleges hence proposing and supplying science materials to schools and colleges. This is due to the great portion of educational expenditure throughout the country.
The good intention and objectives of the government can be a waste of resources if the basic science process skills needed by pupils especially at the primary level of education are lacking .In our today’s world as a global village; science cannot be achieved without the primary basic skills.
It is a clear fact that no nation with negative attitude towards science education can progress as science and technology are very essential to the development of any nation .Jegede (1982), Science is always dealing with facts, theories, laws, experiments and principles while technology is the process of putting scientific discovery into action.
1.1 Background to the Problem
This research is aimed at studying the extent of exposure of student with their individual abilities to acquire measurement and communication as science process skills in primary six which is relevant to the understanding of science. Government’s proposal on science education as enshrined in the new national policy on education (2007) have as much as possible been pursued by both state and federal governments even under very austere economic conditions.
There is no doubt that a greater proportion of the state recurrent and capital expenditure every year goes to education for the purpose of awarding scholarships to science students, payment of science masters allowance (i.e. is in some states where is still being upheld).Maintaining polytechnics, colleges of education and universities ,building laboratories, and supplying of equipments to schools and colleges.
Basic science teaching in our schools especially at primary level has been generally discouraging and the standard gradually been falling in Sokoto as well as in other states throughout the federation. This has been due to several reasons some of which include lack of facilities and equipments. On the other hand, there is also shortage of qualified science teachers who effectively impart the knowledge of acquiring the basic science skills for the better understanding of scientific concept in most of our primary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study is intended to look at the exposure of pupils towards basic science skills acquisition .It will pay particular attention to measurement and communication as basic science skills ;especially where basic science skills are not introduced early enough to the pupils to enable them develop their cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in science.
Measurement is the process of quantifying the students’ responses Kalgo (2010), according to the advanced learner’s dictionary is the act or process of finding out the size, quantity, degree of something. While communication is the activity of expressing ideas and feelings or giving people information; it can said to be the ability to pass information from one point to another.
The difficulty of enormous amount of time being wasted in the teaching and learning science; consequently the poor result that has followed this bad trend every succeeding year of pupils in basic science at primary six (6). Research made from the examination has been deteriorating despite the emphasis government is making on basic science education.
When one critically looks at the above analysis, then there is no doubt that the students’ performance has not been anything to write home about. It is possible that this continuing poor performance is as a result of inadequate acquisition of basic science skills needed for science education. This being the case, there is therefore an urgent need to investigate and asses the acquisition of these skills (measurement and communication) by primary school pupils.
It is the intention of this project to find out if students sampled for this study acquire the basic science skills (measurement and communication) before they go into their final examination at basic level. If not, then the factors responsible will be identified and the ways or means will be sort on how to alleviate the identified problem.
1.3 Research Questions
Based on the foregoing problems, this research will among other things investigate or try to answer the following research questions.
1. Do the schools selected for this study have enough and qualified science teachers to aid in acquiring the skills mentioned earlier?
2. Do the male pupils of the selected schools acquire more science skills (measurement and communication) than their female counterparts?
3. Do the selected private schools pupils acquire more science skills than the public schools? Do the schools selected for this study have the needed equipments and materials for basic science skills (measurement and communication) acquisition?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
It is a basic fact that, presently, many factors influence teaching and learning effectiveness in basic science .Some of these factors may include, the teacher, the pupils and the educational system itself. The main purpose of this project is to investigate or appraise the acquisition of basic science skills(measurement and communication) by primary six pupils in Sokoto metropolis. This study is therefore intended to asses objectives such as facilities, equipments and materials, qualities and number of teachers needed to aid the acquisition of basic skills in science. Secondly, to see whether there is difference between boys and girls and between private and public schools in terms of acquisition of basic science skills (measurement and communication).
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
Below are the hypotheses stated in the null form which will be used in the research work:
1. There is no significant difference between boys and girls pupils towards acquisition of science basic skills.(measurement and communication)
2. There is no significant difference between private school pupils and pupils school pupils towards acquisition of science basic skills. (measurement and communication)
1.6 Significance of the Study
The teaching of basic science skills in our primary school should be directed towards providing the processes by which information is gathered, analysed, synthesized and disseminated in the basic sciences as well as the development of concept, law and theories by which natural phenomena are described, explained and predicted. It is therefore follows that the achievement of the objectives in basic science teaching is very essential.
It is hoped that the successful conduction of this study will among other things;
1. Help other researchers who will like to carry out similar research in future.
2. Be very useful to the ministry of education, administrators both at states and federal levels.
3. Will be useful to the curriculum planners in carrying out their assigned duties.
4. Will also be used as reference material for book writers and publishers.
1.7 The Need for the Study
There is need for this project to be carried out. In fact, the need for this study stemmed from the fact that for some years, students performance in science is nothing to write home about.
This particular point was viewed by presidential committee set up under the chairmanship of professor M. A. Wasagu to investigate whether there is any significance difference between the performance of students in science before the introduction of universal basic education system and their performance after the introduction of this system. The committee found out that there was no significant difference in the performance of the students and the fact that teachers avoided the teaching of certain topics in the syllabus provided in the new curriculum. Also from the findings of the committee, poor quality of some laboratories adversely affected the performance of the students. Many researches made by Science teachers association of Nigeria (STAN), SAPA, SCIS., revealed that there was poor students’ performance. Also from examination bodies result shows that:
1. Time allowed for coverage of the syllabus is inadequate.
2. Candidates avoid answering questions that demand the drawing of diagrams.
3. There is a high correlation between students/teacher ratio and performance.
This being the case, this study will try to reverse this trend of development through the outcome of the result that will be obtained and also from the analysed data as well as recommendations and suggestions.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 Introduction
The review of literature is presented here under the following sub- headings:-
i. Definition of science
ii. Importance of Science and Technology
iii. The Nigeria Basic science curriculum
iv. The need for Basic Science teachers to continue professional growth
v. Teaching aid for Basic Science teaching
vi. Method and procedure that can be applied in teaching of basic science
vii. The need for evaluation in Basic Science teaching
viii. The Basic Skills (Communication & Measurement)
2.1 Definition of Science
In the past, attempts were made to define the word Science. And so far there is no single definition that is acceptable to all. Science is a universally regarded as the organised study of natural phenomena. It is also defined as activities cultivating into testable, falsifiable and verifiable body of knowledge. (Abdullahi, 1982).
Science constitute the axle on which the development and progress of both the individual and the nation depends. It is like legs by means of which we get about the material experiment of life. It can be used for dancing, or for destructive thinking at things. Emavon (1983)
2.2 Basic Science Skills
According to science A. process approach (SAPA) science skills are defined as set of broadly transferable abilities, approach to many science branches and disciplines and reflection of behaviour of scientist. SAPA grouped science skills into two types
Basic Science Skills
Integrated Science Skills

Basic Science Skills
Ten basic skills are identified for children in the kindergarten through the primary school. They are as follows:
1. Observation
2. Inferring
3. Predicting
4. Classifying
5. Measurement
6. Calculating
7. Communication
8. Using Space time relation
9. Hypothesizing
10. Experimentation
Integrated science skills
These are six, and meant for student of post primary and higher grades. These are complex than the basic processes, but based upon them.
1. Recording
2. Controlling variables
3. Interpreting data
4. Defining Operationally
5. Raising questions
6. Formulating mental models
This project will emphasize on two basic science skills. (i.e Measurement and communication)
2.3 Measurement and Communication
Process skills are very important in formal presentation of science to children. There is a strong believe that children who are properly introduced to science through basic process skills will find the skills useful through life while its possible to easily forget science content learnt, process skills tend to remain with many individual for relatively longer period.
The purpose of this research is to asses is to asses the two out ten basic skills to children which are measurement and communication.
Measurement
As defined by science A process approach (SAPA) measurement is the use of both standard and non standard measures or estimates to describe the dimension of an object or event, for example using meter stick to measure the length of a table in centimetres. It could be assume varied forms and could be about various phenomena e.g. area in square meter, length in kilometres, millimetres e.t.c. volume in centimetre cube (cm3) or litres, time in seconds or hour, weight in kilogram, grams etc.
These units must remain congruent with each specified parameters. Measurement involves expressing physical characteristics in qualitative ways to learn science measurement is a skill you need to have, because there are certain scientific situations where measuring is very important especially in chemistry. If you are in the field of chemistry you deal with all sorts of chemical and materials that need to be constantly measured to perfect the concoction.
Omoitor and Olorunlegbe (1999), have suggested that in science that there are different tools to help you with your measurement such as ruler and tape measures for solid objects while you use graduated cylinder, beaker e.t.c for liquid objects measuring is essential to provide further data to your observation and help you to make better inferences. However, measurement involves comparing an unknown quantity with known (students’ generated frames of reference) – observations are quantified using proper measuring devices and techniques.
Measurement are to be recorded in an orderly and systematic fashion with labelled units of measures, charts, graphs or tables can be generated manually or explaining observation especially with computer soft ware. Measurement is important in science because it provides specific information and help observers to avoid bias. Measuring is comparing an object or process to a standard called international unit system is often abbreviated as S.I units (for its French name, international d’ (units)
The Basic units are shown in the table below:
TABLE 1: Table showing the Basic Units in measurements
S/N QUANTITY UNIT ABBREVIATION
1. Length Meter M
2. Volume Centimetre cube Cm3
3. Mass kilogram Kg
4. Temperature Degree
Celsius OC
Source: Research Data (2011)
The basic unit for length is the meter, for a property such as length, the unit for volume is Centimetre cube for liquid property. Grams are use for solid object to get their needed measurement.
However, no measurement can take place in science without proper observation so observation is among the skills and should be the starting point of any science process skills. A student who is a good observer can be a good scientist in terms of measurement especially using five senses organs this will no doubt lead to emergence of potential good scientist in the making.

Communication
This might seem out of the sphere of science but basic science communication skills are also among the basic science skills, you need to learn. This translates every observation and inference you want the world to hear, be it in writing or verbal form. Ideas and discoveries should not be kept all to yourself, this communication is very important when you want to get information from other people, it is very important to communicate well with them to extract the necessary information needed for your study.
Communication as one of the basic science skills needs to be one of the basic science skills needs to learn for one to be successful in the field of science. As an every growing industries, they need highly skilled and highly developed people to join the field. Therefore communication and other basic skills need to be highly mastered so as to join the battle in the pursuit of science.
According to SAPA, communication can be perceived as using words or graphics symbols to describe an action, object or event. Example, describing the change in height of a plant over time in writing or through a graph.
One may have probably waved to friend from a distance, writing some one a note and had more conversation then he cannot count, whenever message from another person, one is said to be communicating.
Science, we have been communicating in our whole life, one may wonder what else we need to learn about the concept.
Now, you are learning how scientists communicate in science, observation and experiment, should be reproduced. That means that any scientist should understand and be able to repeat the work of another scientist. To make such repetition possible, scientists follow certain rules when they communicate.
 The descriptions of all procedures must be understandable and complete.
 Observation on evidence must be recorded accurately and in total researchers who observe unexpected or puzzling result report these results.
 The observation should be discussed separately from the inference; explanation of observation should be discussed separately from the inferences, or explanation of the observations. Other scientists may make different inferences from the same observations.
 Scientific work should be objective, free from bias. In science, being free from bias means considering all reasonable explanation instead of just trying to prove specific idea.
As you study science, you will have any opportunities to communicate, some times orally other times in writing.
Oral communication may occur orally i.e. making presentation or when one work in small groups.
2.4 Importance of Science and Technology
Science plays a major role in society . however even non scientist can appreciate scientific progress .because of science, human understanding of past, present and future is persistent in a state of dynamism because scientific enquiry never ceases to any events once dismiss as material for science fiction such as landing on mars of now seen inevitable.
Science and technology can be found in nearly all aspect of everyday life, for instance if electricity had never been discovered, electrical appliances, lights and television will not exist. Electronic component found in radios, television, wrist watches and calculators are now smaller and more reliable than before. Advances in electronics are responsible for what is called the computer age. Because of computer technology tremendous information can be accelerated in few seconds.
At one time computers were extremely expensive, they were rarely found outside of laboratories and large business facilities. Since they now more economically made, computers can be found in many homes, schools, stores and libraries. Computers facilitate travel plans by providing travel agents with easy access to flight schedules, prices and seating availability. Business use computer to truck inventory, purchase and sell stocks, calculate payrolls and perform other functions.
In physics, the discovery of nuclear energy has had a tremendous effect on the world. It is used in nuclear weapons and in some areas, provides electricity for homes. In some areas, provides electricity for homes. In the past few decades, physicists also have re used their notion of the atom. They once thought of the as elementary building block of matter. Using particles accelerators, it was determined that atoms themselves are composed of many types of elementary particles held together by Special Forces.
Many other scientific advances have provided humans with the ability to significantly alter the environment .scientist now know that the release of certain synthetic chemical compounds into the air can cause hazardous atmospheric conditions, such as the destruction of the ozone layer . it is feared that damage to the ozone layer would allow increased amount of ultraviolet radiation from the sun to penetrate the atmosphere and cause a large increase in the rate of skin cancer.
2.5 The Nigerian Basic Science Curriculum for Primary Schools
The Basic science curriculum was derived from a draft developed by Nigerian Educational Research Development Council (NERDC). Base on the experience gathered over the years, a basic science curriculum was proposed for the nine years basic sciences and technology for primaries four – six.
The objectives of this syllabus have been derived from the National Council on Education (2005) and the overall objectives of the curriculum are to enable the pupils to:-
• Develop interest on science and technology
• Acquire basic knowledge, skill in science and technology
• Apply their scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet societal needs
• Take advantage of the numerous corner opportunities offered by science and technology
• Become prepared for further studies in science and technology.
In order to acquire a holistic presentation of science and technology to learners, the thematic approach to content organization was adopted. Consequently four themes are used to cover knowledge, skills and attitudinal requirement. These are:
1. You and environment
2. Living and Non Living things
3. You and technology
4. You and Energy
It is now left for the Basic Science teachers to diligently pursue and follow this syllabus in order to achieve the desired goals, aims and objectives for the benefit of the students in particular and the nation at large. Below is outline for primary six (6) Basic Science Syllabus:
Theme i: You and Environment
• Synthetic and naturally occurring drug
• Dry
• Effect of Drug Abuse
• Earth and Sky movement
• Our Weather II
Theme ii: Living and Non Living Things
• Improving Crop Yield
• Improving Crop Yield (population and economic consequences)
• The Human body (blood Circulation and reproduction)
• Responsible parental
• Air
• Minerals
Theme iii: You and Technology
• Colours
• Door mate making
• Use of drawing instrument (Board Practice)
• Introduction to wood work Hand tools
• Maintenance
• Safety

Theme iv: You and Energy
• Simple Machines
• Levers
• Pulleys
• Inclined Plane
• Forces
• Frictional force
• Magnetism
It is important to point out here that this syllabus is guide to the academic work designed for this particular primary six (6) level of students in a given period of time, in this case one academic year. It is a broad outline of themes or topics in a subject which have been arranged in a logical sequence for coverage in order that the pupils who use the syllabus can pass a specific examination.
2.6 The Need for Basic Science Teachers to Continue Professional Growth
There is every reasons for any science teacher to continue seeking for further and wider knowledge to cope up with the ever changing concept of modern science. The teachers’ professional growth could come from a transactional relationship existing between the headmaster of a school, the head of department of basic science and technology and the basic science teacher himself. An innovation is bound to lead to personal growth and development. The professional development should be of great importance to the successful transmission of science process skills. Teachers of science should be exposed to in-service training attendance of workshops and seminars related tier different subject areas as these will lead to attainment of development an acquisition of more content knowledge. This would also lead to the attainment of the millennium development goal by 2015 and by extension, the need to implement the national economic and empowerment development strategies (NEEDS), which can be summarized as:- Value re – orientation, poverty eradication, job creation, wealth generation and using education to empower the people.
It is a general belief that teachers are not provided with sufficient training that will enable them improve upon their method of approach to the curriculum of science based subjects and their process skills in to transmit some to their students.
2.7 Teaching Aids for Basic Science
Teaching aids are a set of tools ranging from Home-made device i.e microscope to more sophisticated machines be film projector each assisting the teacher in disseminating scientific knowledge.
Conventionally, teaching aids are classified on the basis of the sense organ they appeal to. Those that stimulate the sense of hearing are referred to as audio aids. Some of the most frequently used audio aids are:
a. Human Voice
b. Record Player
c. Tape Recorder
d. The radio
Visual aids are those teaching aids that appeal to sense of sight. They include:-
a. Models, Specimen and Collections
b. Still Pictures and collections
c. Charts, maps, exhibits and graphics materials.
Those teaching aids which appeal to the sense of hearing and sights are referred to as audio – visual aids which include printed matter and community resources. Example of printed matter includes:
a. Textbooks
b. Syllabus
c. Newspaper etc.
In science teaching, the commonest community resources include visit to the museums, zoos, field – trips and visit by resource person or first hand experience in certain scientific processes.
From the stand point of the teacher and the pupils, one of the most important teaching aids is the class textbooks, several factors which should be borne in mind when soliciting or recommending textbooks for science include:
a. Comprehensibility and reading levels of the book
b. A good textbook should be in clear bold prints and should be one that would give known example and discuss ideas and concepts in relation what prevail within the students’ environment. (According to Abdullahi 1982).
c. The book must be accurate and up to date with its contents.
d. The vocabulary and style of presentation of a good text must be appropriate to the students for whom they are intended.
e. A good textbook should contain organized, satisfactory material for effective learning. (According to Owen).
Science textbooks would have little value as a learning aid if they are too difficult to read and understand.
2.8 Method and Procedure that can be applied in Teaching Basic Science
Science teaching involve various activities, hence science teachers should be aware of certain general rules which facilitates the selection of appreciate approaches of imparting knowledge or developing basic science skills to pupils. According to Abdullahi (1982), in selecting the methodology for any science lesson, Basic Science inclusive, the science teacher should consider:
1. The pupils age, their previous knowledge on the topic and their general ability.
2. The method should be suitable for the pupils to be taught
3. The science teacher should select the method that he or she can effectively handle.
4. The time the lesson will take place should be put into consideration. If a science course is to take place in the afternoon, it is advisable to select a method which requires student’s participation.
5. The size of the class is another factor to be taken into account.
6. The resources that are at the disposal of the teacher should be an important guide in the choice of teaching method.
In teaching primary six level students, the frequency with which the teaching method is changed should go a long way with their understanding.
There several methods, a science teacher can use in presenting basic scientific information, principles or skills to pupils; some of which include:-
1. Problems solving
2. Demonstration method
3. Textbook Method
4. Laboratory (Investigative method)
5. Field Trips.
2.9 The Need for Evaluation in Basic Science Teaching
Evaluation of Basic science teaching in our primary school system is highly essential in order to achieve the desired objectives. For any evaluation to be effective then the following must be considered.
a. Quality of teachers and teaching methods: this will include average age of teachers, qualifications, teaching experience, attendance at work shops, seminar and conferences, membership in Basic science organizations, teaching method used, commonly used textbooks, adequacy of laboratories and time tables.
b. Assessment of students attainment in Basic Science frequency of testing, mode of getting questions.
c. Students themselves – enrolment trend in the schools, reasons for choice of science, frequency of submission of correction of past class works and Home works especially on practical exercises.
The general observation is that few teachers of Basic Science and Sciences in general are members of any organization, this cannot be argued well for effective and objective evaluation to go on .
In reality, it should be mandatory for all science teachers to register for all science teachers to register with one or more science organizations e.g. STAN. This will instil the culture of attending vocation courses in teachers and other workshop which hopefully will help in their growth and development as effective science teachers.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction
This chapter is mainly devoted to strategies of gathering relevant data for the study. The content of this chapter will include research design, population, sample and sampling technique, instrumentation, method of data analysis and conclusion.
3.1 Research Design
This research study is a descriptive type. It is designed to find out how best the acquisition of science skills particularly the basic skills (measurement and communication) has been achieved among primary six (6) pupils in Sokoto metropolis. Both the student test and teachers questionnaire were design to aid in soliciting responses from the respondents. The survey method was adopted because it will enable the researchers to gather enough information from the respondents.

3.2 Population
A research population refers to the group of people or objects a researcher is interested in studying. Based on this, the population of our research comprises the total number of primary six (6) students of the selected primary schools in Sokoto metropolis. The total number of student of primary six (6) in the six selected primary school is as shown on table 2:-
Table 2: Showing the names and population of selected schools.
S/N Name of school No of primary six pupils No Respondent
1 Usmanu Danfodiyo University Primary School.(U.P.S) 204 15
2 Unity Comprehensive School (U.C.S) 117 15
3 Sokoto Cement Primary School (S.C.P.S) 106 15
4 Gidan Salihu Model Primary School (G.S.M.P.S) 186 15
5 Sultan Ward Primary School (S.W.P.S) 210 15
6 Yakubu Mu’azu Primary School(Y.M.P.S) 211 15
Source: Research Data (2011)
From the above list, the total population of sample is nine hundred and seventeen (917). The first three schools are private ones and the other three (3) are public/government owned. Three school selected will represent the whole schools in the Sokoto metropolis.
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
A sample is a listed number of elements selected from a population as a representation of the population (Ndagi 1984), in order to actualize the aim and objective of our study. We employed a randomly selected primary six pupils and basic science teachers in order to actualize the broad aim and objective of our study. We randomly selected primary six pupils and basic science teachers of the six selected schools in the metropolis.
The rationale behind the selection of schools was that they are schools which have been in existence for at least seven years and have been approved by Sokoto State Primary Education Board (SUPEB) and the Local Government Education Authority (LGEA). Secondly, the schools are selected based on the fact that they are offering basic science subjects.
However, the students who the test was administered to were randomly selected in all the aforementioned schools used for the sampling and the sampled population is 90. That is 15 persons per school.
3.4 Instrumentation
The principal research instrument used for data gathering was the teachers’ questionnaire and the students test. The teachers’ questionnaire focuses on qualification, teaching experience, laboratory facilities etc. on the other hand, students test was generally considered two (2) out of ten (10) basic science skills (i.e. measurement and communication).
The test was prepared by researchers and validated by the supervisor after cross checking and effected correction to mistakes where necessary.

3.5 Method of Data Analysis
The data was collected from various respondent i.e. both the teacher and the student in the selected primary school were analysed. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer regard question where as T.test was employed to test hypothesis. The teacher’s questionnaire was first treated, followed by students test this analysis was based on responses. Twelve (12) teachers of basic science and ninety (90) pupils respectively from both private and public schools out of twelve (12) teachers five (5) are female and seven (7) are male.
3.6 Conclusion
Regarding the procedure used in this chapter to strategies the genuinely of the research, it can be concluded that the design of the research, the technique and the data analysis were elaborated for the purpose of this study and any other research or investigation if the need arises. Moreover, the standard deviation and the t-test have enabled us to know whether there is any significance differences between the variables stated or not.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction
This chapter consist of data presentation, analyses of data collected, conclusion and recommendation. The presentation and analysis of the raw data of an investigation are the means by which the research problem is answered and hypothesis is tested.
4.1 Data Analysis
As mentioned in the previous chapter, questionnaires were administered to Teachers of basic science in the selected primary schools and test questions to student [pupils] of the selected school before the analysis of the results, of the pupils test, we begin with the analysis of the questionnaires.
4.2 Analysis of Teachers Questionnaire
The teachers’ questionnaire was used mainly to find out the problems and the difficulties faced by the teachers which has made the inculcation of the basic science skills (measurement and communication) to their pupils a herculean task to accomplish.
From the questionnaire the researchers were able to come out with the following findings
Question 1. In the teachers questionnaire was concern with the teaching experience of the teachers in the sampled schools the observation made in table 3 is about the years of teaching experience and was very encouraging, because a greater percentage of the have been teaching for seven (7) and above years.
TABLE 3: Table showing years of teaching experience
No. of Years Respondents Percentage of Responses
1-3 2 16.67%
4-7 3 25.00%
7 and above 7 58.33%
Source: Research Data (2011)
Question 4
Also in the research questionnaire there is concern with the equipment of the laboratories.
TABLE 4: Table showing the equipments of laboratories
Nature of Laboratory Schools Percentage of Response
Equipped 8 66.66%
Not equipped 4 33.34%
Source: Research Data (2011)
Analysis shows that more than half of the sampled schools have well equipped laboratories.
For easier analysis four (4) questions were linked together as they seek information concerning the basic science text book being used by teachers, understanding and the possession of the books by their pupils.
Looking at the next table the most widely used were Macmillan, Basic Science and technology for primary schools, Science Teachers Association of Nigeria Text book and Longman Basic Science. 29.41% in the sampled schools indicated the use of STAN primary science while MacMillan, Longman texts UBE Basic science textbooks and (think and do activities basic science) have recorded 23.52% each.
TABLE 5: Table showing basic science text books used by the teachers
Name of text books Schools Percentage of response
Macmillan 4 23.52
Long man 4 23.52
STAN 5 29.41
U.B.E text (think and do activity basic science) 4 23.25
Source: Research Data (2011)
On the possession of the text books 23.52% of the teachers responded that few of their students possessed a copy of basic science text books.
TABLE 6: Table showing possession of the text books by students
School type No. of Respondents Percentage of responses
Government 6 50.00
Private 6 50.00
Source: Research Data (2011)
On the possession of the textbooks 50% percent of the teachers responded that a few of their students posse a copy of basic science text book in both government and private school, while the remaining teachers agreed that all their students had at least a copy of basic science textbook as shown in table 6.
4.3 Analysis of Student Questionnaire
A total of ninety (90) respondents completed their test and returned them intact .out of this number forty seven were female and forty three were male The pupils were allowed to either tick yes or No to each statements.
Table 7 was used to analyse how the subject pupils responded to the questions in the two types of schools that is Government and private schools in Sokoto Metropolis (where the study was carried out). The frequency and percentage score of both schools were also obtained.

Table 7: Showing the frequency of the responses, as was obtained from the pupils test.
Type of school Frequency Percentage of responses
Government 45 50
Private 45 50
Source: Research Data (2011)
Data from table 8 did show that there was variations in the sample mean, and standard deviation scores from the government school and private schools. The assessment here was that the students from the private schools had a better chance of acquiring science Basic skills than the government school (see appendix for the statistical calculation).
Table 7: Means and Standard Deviation of the two types of schools selected for the study.
Type of school Mean Standard Deviation
Government 16.9 9.46
Private 20.4 3.1
Source: Research Data (2011)
From the analysis in the table 7 one can clearly say that the rate of acquisition of basic science skills by the individual students in the female pupils varied tremendously see appendix for statistical calculation).
Table 8: The Mean Standard Deviation for male and female pupils of both (government and private) schools
Sex of Pupils Mean Standard Deviation
Male pupils 19.4 4.14
Female pupils 20.13 3.03
Source: Research Data (2011)
Analysis of Hypothesis
The following hypotheses were drawn to verify whether differences existed in the acquisition of basic science skills (measurement and communication) by the pupils.
The t-score was used to test for significance differences between private schools pupils and government school pupils towards the acquisition of basic science skills (measurement and communication).
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between male pupils and female pupils private and government schools towards the acquisition of basic science skills (measurement and communication).
Table 9: The t-test Values of the Hypothesis after Testing
Type of school t-test Level of significance
Government 0.49 N.S
Private 0.10 N.S
Source: Research Data (2011)
N.S = No significant V = versus
From table 9 and the t-score values obtained after analysis, it was observed that even though there were some differences and variations in the mean and standard deviation scores of the selected schools there was no significant difference on the whole.
(1) Between government schools’ pupils and private schools pupils towards the acquisition of basic science skills (measurement and communication).
(2) Between male pupils (government and private inclusive) and the female pupils towards the acquisition of science basic skills (measurement and communication).
4.2 Conclusion
After the analysis of data for this study results and findings were made available from where the following conclusions were drawn.
The six schools randomly selected for this study from Sokoto Metropolis were government owned and private. A good fraction of the teachers selected were education science professionals. More than half of the selected teachers agreed that they had equipped science laboratories in their schools while only few of the dif not (government and private schools inclusive).
Although some of the sampled teachers used more than one text book to of Nigeria (STAN), which 29.41 persons o the respondents used out four (4) different basic textbooks. Most if not all of the teachers sampled responded that the students understand the textbooks provided to them.
Judging from the above result, one could say the there were variation in
(1) The mean score and standard deviation of the government and private schools students.
(2) The mean score and standard deviation of the males and females pupils (private and government inclusive).
(3) When the t-test was finally used to test the level of significance of basic science skills (measurement and communication) acquisition. There were no significant differences between government schools pupils and private schools pupils, as well as male pupils and female pupils in Sokoto Metropolis towards the acquisition of basic science skills (measurement and communication).
4.3 Recommendation
Following the results and findings derived from the study, the following recommendations were made to help improve the basic science process skills acquisition of our pupils in the primary schools in Sokoto Metropolis in particular and in the country at large.
1. Since Science is regarded as a continuous process there should be an intimate relationship existing between the product of science (concept) and the process of measurement in science. The major reason for this lies in the fact that the process leads to the formulation of concept and concept in turn leads to more investigations calling for the use of processes.
2. Efforts should be made by teachers of basic Science in particular and science in general to expose students to usefulness of science in contemporary world with a view to engineering in them a keen interest that could improve their performance in communication of science skills.
3. Although most of the teachers specialise in science related subjects e.g. Biology, Physics, Chemistry, a good fraction of them specialised in Senior secondary subjects so stakeholders e.g. Ministry of Education, U. B. E. Should ensure the deployment of teachers that are specialist in teaching primary school science.
4. Since it is important that instruction should not be teacher-centred but student-centred, the teacher should endeavour to use other techniques like demonstration and field trips or excursion concurrently with laboratory activities to increase student participation in the learning and to enabler them develop and acquire more science process skills (measurement and communication).
5. The government, both Federal and States’ Voluntary Organisations. Privately owned establishments and all interested groups should rally round and create some incentives for the benefit of teachers in particular who contribute the be ck of any nation’s educational growth and development. Something urgent need to be done especially this time when Nigeria is highly interested in producing enough manpower in the field of science and technology toward achieving vision 2020, that will enable the country to attain the status of a developed nation in the near future it this is not done, the number of qualified science teachers will be diminished as they will be looking for greater pasture some where else.

REFERENCES

Abdulahi, A. (1982). Science Teaching in Nigeria, Ilorin Atoto Press.
Akpan O.E. (1988). Introducing Statistics in Education. Pp. 32-32.
Conant, M.E. (1912). “An Empirical Investigation into salient factors affecting the performance of students in mathematics.
Excelsior Middle school hand book 2011
FRN National policy Education 2007.
J.S. Cookey Gam Acquisition of science process skills for student offering Biology at SS1 level 1987.
Jegede (1982) “The effect of Teacher Anxiety and modeling on the acquisition of a science Teaching Skills and Concomitant students performance.
Kalgo F.A. (2010) Measurement and Evaluation under graduate
M.A Wasagu (2004) An Introduction to history and philosophy of science.
Nigerian Basic Science Curriculum for Primary Schools by (NERDR) (2007) (7)
Okey J.R. and Gerrad W. (1984) “Assessing the Competence of Science Teachers”. Journal of Science Education. Vol. 64.3 pp. 279-309.
Omoitor and Olorunlegbe (1999) “relationship of student in science to curriculum school and student factor.
S.T.A.N. 27th Annual Conference Journal p. 265.
SAPA (March 1990) Research matters to the science Teachers No. 9004.
(SCIS) (1975) Researches on elementary process skills improvement.

APPENDIX A
Below are the distribution of scores for the government (public schools)
Class interval Frequency Xi Fxi Xi2
10-12 1 11 11 121
13-15 5 14 70 196
16-18 10 17 170 289
19-21 19 20 380 400
22-24 10 23 230 529
25-27 0 26 0 676
45 ∑fxi 111 ∑fxi= 861 ∑fxi =2211
Below are the distribution of scores for he private schools
Class interval Frequency Xi Fxi Xi2
10-12 1 11 11 121
13-15 3 14 42 196
16-18 6 17 102 289
19-21 14 20 280 400
22-24 21 23 483 529
25-27 0 26 0 676
∑fi 45 ∑xi 111 ∑fxi= 908 ∑xi =2211

APPENDIX B.
GOVERNMENT
X = ∑fxi = 761 = 16.9
N 45

S.D = ∑fx2 – ∑fx 2
N N
S.D = 116881 – 761 2
45 43

S.D = 375.13 – (16.9)2 = 375.13 – 285.6

S.D = 89.53

= 9.46 = X2
PRIVATE
X = ∑fx = 981 = 20.4
N 45

S.D = ∑fx2 – ∑fx 2
N N
S.D = 19152 – 20.4 2
45
= 425.6 – 4162 = 9.4 = 3.1
= X1

APPENDIX C.
t- test between private and government
t = X1 – X2
X12 + X22
(N1 + N2) – 2
X1 and X2 are means of the samples
X1 Means of the private schools
X2 Means of the government schools.
X12 & X22 = Sums of the square in two samples
N1 & N2 = Number of the cases of the two samples.
X1 = 20.4
X2 = 16.9
X12 = 2211
N1 = 45
N2 = 45
X1 – X2 = 20.4 – 16.9 = 3.5
X12 + X22 = 2211 + 2211 = 4422
(N1 + N2) – 2 = (45+45) – 2 = 88

t = 3.5
4422
88
t = 3.5
50.25
t = 3.5
7.088
= 0.49
Below is the distribution of scores for the male pupils
Class interval Frequency (f) Xi Xi2 Fxi Fxi2 (fx)2
10 – 12 2 11 121 22 242 484
13-15 3 14 196 42 588 1764
16-18 8 17 289 136 2312 18496
19-21 18 20 400 360 7200 129600
22-24 12 23 529 276 6348 76176
25-27 0 26 676 0 0 0
∑f=43 ∑xi2 2211 ∑fxi 836 ∑fxi2 16990 ∑(fx)2 = 109880

APPENDIX D.
Below is the distribution of scores for the female pupils
Class interval Frequency (f) Xi X2 Fxi Fx2 (fx)2
10 – 12 0 11 121 0 0 0
13-15 5 14 196 70 980 4900
16-18 8 17 289 136 2312 18496
19-21 14 20 400 280 5600 78400
22-24 20 23 529 460 10580 211600
25-27 0 26 676 0 0 0
∑f=47 2211 946 19472 = 313396

MALE
X = ∑fxi = 836 = 19.4
N 43
S.D = ∑fx2 – ∑(fxi)2
N N

S.D = 16990 – (fxi)2
43 N

S.D = 395.116 – (19.133)2
= 395.116 – 377.898

S.D = 17.14

S.D = 4.14

FEMALE
X = ∑fx = 946 = 20.13
N 47

S.D = ∑fx2 – ∑(fx)2
N N

S.D = 19472 – (946)
47 47

S.D = 414.30 – 20.13

= 41430 – 405.12

S.D = 9.8 = 3.03

X1 & X = Means of the two sample
X12 & X22 = Sums of square in two samples
N1 & N2 = Number of case of the two sample
X2 = Means of male = 19.4
N1 = 43
X1 = Means of female = 20.13
N2 = 47

APPENDIX E.
Female versus male
X1 – X2 = 20.13 – 19.40 = 0.73
X12 = 2211
X22 = 2211
X12 +X22 = 2211 + 2211 = 4422
(N1 + N2) – 2 = (43 + 47) – 2 = 88
N1 N2 = N1 X N2 = 43 x 47 = 2021
Substitution
0.73 0.73 0.73
¬¬¬¬¬2211 + 2211 = 4422 = 50.25
(43 + 47)-2 88
= 0.73 = 0.10
7.08

APPENDIX F.
USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY, SOKOTO
FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND EXTENSION SERVICES
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
TEACHERS QUESTIONNAIRE
AN APPRAISAL OF PRIMARY SIX (6) BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS
(COMMUNICATION AND MEASUREMENT) ACQUISITION
This questionnaire is intended to find out some of the problem faced by the basic Science teachers in Sokoto metropolis.
The findings will help to provide useful suggestions which may enhance the acquisition of Science Basic Skills.
Instruction
Please indicate your response to each item by a tick ( ) and provide answers where they are required.
Name of School:…………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………….
Address: ………………………………………………………………..
Kind of School (Government/Private):………………………………
Age of School: ………………………………………………………
Composition (Mixed/Boys/Girls): ……………………………………..
Your qualification: …………………………………………………..
Your sex: ……………………………………………………………….
Area of specialization: …………………………………………………
1. For how longs have you been teaching: ………………………
2. What do you teach:………………………………………………
3. What class do you teach: ………………………………………
4. Do you have equipped science laboratory in the school? …
(i) If no to (4) above where do you teach the subject?………..
……………………………………………………………………..
(ii) If yes to (4) above is it well equipped? …………………
……………………………………………………………………
5. Which text book do you use in teaching he subject Basic Science
(a) …………………………………………………………
(b) ……………………………………………………………
(c) ……………………………………………………………
(d) ……………………………………………………………
6. Do students have copies of the text book(s)?
………………………….…………………………………………
7. Do you think most of the students understand the book(s)?
…………..………………………………………………………
8. If yes to (7) above, how often do you use it?
(a) Always
(b) When teaching difficult topics
(c) When teaching topics outside my area of specialization
(d) Not used at all
9. How many Basic Science teachers do you have in your school?……………………………………………
10. Do you from time to time take your students out on an excursion and/or field trip?………………………………………..
Thank you for your cooperation.
APPENDIX G
USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY, SOKOTO
FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND EXTENSION SERVICES
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE
AN APPRAISAL OF PRIMARY SIX (6) BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS
(COMMUNICATION AND MEASUREMENT) ACQUISITION

Dear pupil,
We are undergraduate Student of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. This questionnaire is intended to appraise the pupils Basic Science Skills acquisition. We are therefore counting on your co-operation in completing this questionnaire and returning it for collection. We are assuring you that any information or response provided will be treated in strict confidence.
Instruction
Name of School:…………………………………………………
Sex, Male or Female:……………………………………………
Read each statement carefully and then tick ( ) accordingly in your answer is Yes /No.
Example: Thermometer is used to measured temperature Yes ( ) No ( )
1. Time can be measured using watch Yes ( ) No ( )
2. Physical object are used in Science: Yes ( ) No ( )
3. Scientists do not use instrument to carry out their works Yes( )No ( )
4. Air helps us to hear sound from the distance Yes ( ) No ( )
5. Space does not exist Yes ( ) No ( )
6. Normal human temperature is 370 Yes ( ) No ( )
7. 10 Centimetres is less than 10 millimetres Yes ( ) No ( )
8. Scale is used for measuring object Yes ( ) No ( )
9. Scientists can make measurement without mistake Yes ( No ( )
10. Ruler is used for drawing Yes ( ) No ( )
11. Can you draw a table Yes ( ) No ( )
12. Honey is thicker than water Yes ( ) No ( )
13. A lorry is heavier than motor cycle Yes ( ) No ( )
14. The voice of a man is different from that of a boy Yes ( ) No ( )
15. Drawing is the act of representing an object using pencil Yes ( ) No ( )
16. Combination of two colours gives another colour Yes ( ) No ( )
17. Tape line is use for measuring length distance etcYes ( ) No( )
18. Sweating comes as a result of exercise Yes ( ) No ( )
19. Heart beat increases during exercise Yes ( ) No ( )
20. Smoke indicate the presence of fire Yes ( ) No ( )
21. 60 minutes make one hour Yes ( ) No ( )
22. Triangle has four side Yes ( ) No ( )
23. A stone is a solid Yes ( ) No ( )
24. A cup full of water is not heavier than that of sand Yes ( ) No( )
25. A rectangle has four side Yes ( ) No ( )
26. Animal move from one place to another while plant can not Yes( )No( )

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: