BEING A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF NIGERIAN CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION, ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT, SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES, SHEHU SHAGARI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, SOKOTO.
T This project has been read and approved by the Department of English Language, school of languages, Shehu Shagari college of Education Sokoto. This is in partial fulfillment for the award of Nigerian Certificate of Education in English-Computer.
Mr. Reuben Ojineme
This research work is dedicated to my beloved parents Alhaji Mustapha Zakariyah and Hajia Khadija Mustapha, and also to my dearest siblings Abullahi, Abdulhamid, Rukkayya, Maryam, Yusuf, Muhammad Bashir and Ismail for your support and prayers to make me always fly high. I pray that Almighty Allah keep the flag of love flying in our household. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All praise is due to Allah the omnipotent, the creator and the sustainer of the world, may the blessing of Allah be upon the prophet Muhammad (SAW), his household and all that follow his path till the day of Judgement. I am very delighted to acknowledge the effort of my untiring supervisor Mr. Reuben OJineme for giving my part of his time to read through and give expertise advice toward the making of this research work a successful one. It is with utmost respect that I acknowledge the effort of Alhaji M. Z Mustapha and Hajia Khadija Mustapha, Alhaji Yunusa Bhadmus, Hajia Nusirat Bhadmus, Alhaji Hassan, Mallama Madinat Hassan for their words of encouragement, support, prayers to make me a superb and unique HALIMA in the light of Islam by giving the good training to follow the path of Islam and the Sunnah of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH), May Almighty Allah grant you long life and prosperity to reap the fruit of your labour. My appreciation goes to beloved siblings Abdullahi, Abdulhamid, Rukayya, Maryam, Yusuf, Muhammad Bashir and Ismail Mustapha for your support, caring, love for me toward the successful completion of my studies. May Almighty Allah strengthen our love and keep the flag of love flying in our family. With heart full of excitement I must appreciate the effort of my lecturers in the department of Education, General studies, English department, the Head of Computer department Mallama Habiba Muhammad, the examination officer Mal. Mikailu Muhammad, Director MIS Mal. Yahya isah to mention but few may Almighty Allah reward you abundantly. I must also acknowledge the good work of all the authors of the reference materials I used in this work as well as the principal of the schools used as my sample and collected data from, may God reward you abundantly. The work will not be completed today if not roles played by my course mates Hafsat Abetu Zainab Ismail Ibrahim, Zainab Abdullahi Yusuf, Maimuna Ibrahim…and all those whose name could not be mentioned I thank you At juncture, I must with full of proud and satisfaction acknowledge the role played by brothers and sisters in person of Aremu Kazeem Olalekan, Saheed Salihu, Rufai Aliyu Jatto, Saheed Mustapha, Taofeek Adebayo Jimoh, Nafiu Jimoh, Maryam Hassan, Hikima, Abdulsalam and my new baby cousin Abdulrahman thank you all and God bless you all. My Profound gratitude and heart of appreciation goes to my fiancee Alfa Saheed Abdulhamid for his love, caring, understanding, encouragement, word of prayers in wishing me well toward the success of this work, I lack words to thank you and your beloved parents, siblings all I could say is I love you. Finally, I wish to thank all those who have contributed in one way or the other toward the success of this work whose name could not be mentioned in making this work a reality, may the Almighty see you through in all your endeavours.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Research appears to be making an increasing impact on our everyday lives. In public discussions today the evidence of this fact is considered to be important. We are unlikely to accept authoritative statements without some explanations, to prove the statement. As a result we are sometimes in danger of being swamped by facts. The trouble is that the facts cannot always be trusted . Every profession requires its members to acquire certain specialized abilities and teaching is no exception (LUX, 1972). Among the specialized abilities expected of the classroom teacher is to have some certain behaviours which promote both the learning of the subject (English Language) and the students’ attitude. Teachers’ classroom interactions can be analyzed in order to obtain information on how to be effective with regards to the teaching and learning process in the classroom and selection of teaching method from which to develop and control their behaviour in a continuing programme of self development. There is the need for using different methods in teaching different groups of students. For instance in teaching English Language the teacher needs to have interactive session for his students and therefore in the class, demonstration method should be applied rather than lecture. However, the only way to find out the usefulness of the different methods is to observe their behaviour in different ability levels in selection of methodology of teaching, the teacher has to bear in his mind. How should Language be taught, What teaching methods would be suitable in the teaching of Language, English language In particular, What is the role of small group discussion, the classroom demonstration, and audio-visual aid in teaching and learning of English Language. There are basically several methods of observing English Language teachers, two of these are Interaction analysis and topological studies (step by step observation based on record). It’s generally accepted that an application and understanding of education events are essential to any analysis of educational process. Teachers should analyze their classroom interaction in order to obtain effective learning, especially their own actions during the process of teaching and learning.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
For many years, now there have been expressed concerns about the problems faced by most of the English Language teachers in secondary schools. Such problems include insufficient training, inadequate facilities, poor teaching techniques, and inappropriate language of communications. It has been observed that for many years secondary school students use to have massive failure in their English Language examinations both terminal and school leaving examinations (SSCE). It is In view of this that the researchers are interested in finding out the cause of this massive failure, putting into consideration the effect of teachers’ behavior. English Language, like many other core subjects in secondary school requires a lot of skills for proficiency in the teaching and learning process. The problems of teaching English Language are not recent issues but have existed since the introduction of the subject in the school curriculum. The major complaints in teaching English Language have always been associated with the behaviour of the teachers towards English Language. Among the noted teachers’ behaviour are: Domination of the class by the teacher alone, inappropriate language of communication, discouraging the students to ask questions, lateness and abstinence of the teachers from their lessons. As a result of this, the researchers therefore aim at looking into the effects of teachers’ behaviour in the teaching and learning of English Language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the Language, and at the end suggest possible solutions for effective teaching and learning of English Language.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS In this study, the effects of teachers behaviour in the teaching and learning of English Language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the Language, be studied in the following questions: 1. What are the behaviours displayed by the English Language teachers in classroom? 2. What are the difference between the behaviours displayed by male and female English Language teachers? 3. What effect does the teachers behaviour have on the students achievement in English Language
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 1. There is no significant difference in behaviour displayed by English Language teachers in classroom. 2. There is no significant difference between the behaviour displayed by male and female English Language teachers. 3. There is no significant effect on the students achievement in the achievement of English Language
1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The objectives of the research are to find out the effect of teachers behaviour in teaching English Language on the academic achievement of English Language students in Sokoto metropolis. The study will try: 1. To find out the behaviuor displayed by English Language teachers in classroom. 2. To find out if there is any difference between the behaviour displayed by male and female English Language teachers 3. To find out how the teachers’ behavior affect the achievement of English Language students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Any venture into the problem of teaching and learning is a step further in the advancement of education. Therefore this study is expected to be of help to the English Language teachers in improving teaching/learning process in secondary schools. It is also hoped that it will motivate them to be more creative and more interested in the Language so as to make the teaching and learning of the language rich and lively at all time. In addition, it is also hoped that this survey would help the school administrators and the policy makers in Sokoto state and the federation at large to improve their services to the schools if the recommendations given by the researchers will be implemented. Moreover, it will also help in understanding various problems affecting the teaching of languages especially English Language so as to make necessary corrections as the future of our youth depends on the background we are able to provide for them and it is on this background that they are going to be developed.
1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY This research project is limited to secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis Sokoto state of Nigeria. The study could not cover the entire state due to the time factor and financial problems. The study is also limited to English Language. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.0 INTRODUCTION In the early 1960s, independence of Nigeria came with inevitable evaluations that did not spare the language with which the project of colonization was accomplished and sustained over many generations, a language that had also been bequeathed as a legacy, insinuated ambivalence in thinking about English in Nigeria. On the other hand, the permanency and pervasiveness of the role of this language in national life was recognized and the fact inscribed in constitution after constitution (see, for instance, the 1999 Constitution, chapter five). With regard to participation in international affairs, its role is clearly irreplaceable. Therefore, English is to retain a position of central importance in the educational curriculum of Nigeria. On the other hand, the decision makers and curriculum planners appeared to be observing certain unwritten cautions towards this legacy, and the result was to dampen the interest in the learning of English and the intellectual culture sustained by the educational system handed over to us. However, Classroom observation has been recognized as an important instrument for finding out the nature of classroom interactions and teachers’ behaviour. And the effect of the teacher’s behaviour on the academic performance of the students. The present study will adopt the direct approach to find out the level of interaction between the teacher and his pupils in the classroom. Some of the related literatures reviewed are: A.N Akwanya (2009), observed that the low performance of Nigerian students in English Language has been worsening since the mid-1970s and it is often attributed to factors like poor attitudes towards the second language, low investment in education, poor training of teachers, non-availability of teaching aids, poor teaching methods, government take-over of schools, resulting in poor supervision and lowering of standards, poor social environment, poor motivation among the learners and the teachers, lack of commitment among the teachers, the explosion in in-take and students population, with consequent pressure and collapse of facilities, and of course mother tongue interference. However, in the early 1950s, most Nigerian Secondary Schools were offering English Language as a core subject in one form or the other but the general trend was to offer the subjects up to the school certificate examination partly because of the inadequate teachers in the subject areas and mostly because of lack of resources needed to teach the subject up to school certificate level. The programme of Art curriculum development which began in 1960,s and continued into the present decade has made available a wider range of resources, materials and techniques than at any time in the past. Many of the equipment developed for school Arts teachings are expensive and required regular and skilled maintenance for their working life to be maximized. Others may be improvised as required from material, which are commonly available.
2.1 DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS THE CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE
According to an American Linguist founder Leonard Bloomfield (1949), perceived Language to mean the principal means used by human beings to communicate with one another. Language is primarily spoken, although it can be transferred to other media, such as writing. If the spoken means of communication is unavailable, as may be the case among the deaf, visual means such as sign language can be used. He added that a prominent characteristic of language is that the relation between a linguistic sign and its meaning is arbitrary. There is no reason other than convention among speakers of English that a dog should be called dog, and indeed other languages have different names (for example, Spanish perro, Russian sobaka, Japanese inu). Language can be used to discuss a wide range of topics, a characteristic that distinguishes it from animal communication. The dances of honey bees, for example, can be used only to communicate the location of food sources (see Honey Bee: Communication). While the language-learning abilities of apes have surprised many—and there continues to be controversy over the precise limits of these abilities—scientists and scholars generally agree that apes do not progress beyond the linguistic abilities of a two-year-old child. However, according to Samuel T Coleridge (2006), as contained in the book of Charles ogbulago defined Language as the armoury of the human mind; and at once contains the trophies of the past and the weapons of its future conquests. Also the concept of Language was perceived by Mfon B Ekpe (2010), he perceived language as culture which can be separated from each other. It is in view of all the above concept that the researchers define Language as a means of socialization by way of interaction with human and material resources available around us.
THE CONCEPT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE English Language is the primary language of the majority of people in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, other former colonies of Britain, and territories of the United States. It is also an official or semiofficial language of many countries with a colonial past, such as India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and South Africa. Even in countries where English is not a primary or official language, it is taught as a foreign language and used as the language of technology and diplomacy. English is spoken in most parts of the world than any other language and by more people than any other language except Chinese. According to Aremu O (2012), English Language is a medium of communication, like every other language of the world. He added that English is the native language of some parts of the western world like the great Britain (United Kingdom), some part of the America (U.S.A) etc. He further describe English Language as one of the most spoken language of the world. Today, English is the lingua franca of Nigeria (official language) as Nigeria was colonized by the British people. Also Abdullahi M (2012), opined that it is the language introduced to some countries of the world by the British the colonizer, he added that English Language is a universal Language though not adopted by the entire nations of the world but more than 97% uses it as means of communication. However, Salihu S (2012), is also of the opinion that English Language serve a general means of communicating in some areas, mostly where it is generally accepted as their lingua franca. Aliyu R. (2012), also observed that English Language is said to be the language which originates from the British as their native language and it is also recognized by the Americans with the exception of South Americans. At this juncture, English Language can be defined as a means of communication adopted to be lingua franca of the British colonized nations and some part of the America with the exception of South America. Since independence in Nigeria English is not only used as lingua franca but also the Language of instruction in Schools to facilitate learning other subjects except the Native Language (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba) and French language in some schools.
2.2 THE ADVENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN NIGERIA
The exact date that English language usage started in Nigeria is not certain. However, it is believed that the first intimate contact between the British and some ethnic groupings in Nigeria was in Southern Nigeria. This must have been at some period before the Atlantic slave trade. It is on record that as from 1553 English men paid frequent visits to the Nigerian shores, especially the ports of Ancient Benin and old Calabar, and the type of communication which evolved between the English men and the Nigerians was a simplified kind of communication in English called Pidgin. However, Portuguese and not English was probably the earliest European language to be used in Nigeria. According to Adetugbo (1984), a certain Oba in Benin was reported to have spoken Portuguese. The language was in use for economic interest and because it was the language of commerce and diplomacy in the ancient Benin kingdom. Actually, the advent of English in Nigeria can be classified into three major periods, namely: the period before the missionary activities, the period during missionary activities and the period after the amalgamation of the southern and northern protectorates. It is important to add that there is no clear cut demarcation among these periods as each period shades into another period. However, English as the official language in Nigeria was made so to unite the country linguistically and culturally. It is chosen to be the official language partially because people of some parts speak English because of the colonies ruled by the British which came to an end in the year 1960. Although many ethnic groups prefer communicating in their native languages than the official language which is English. It is used in Education for official purposes and business transactions. English is spoken by the urban populations but still the rural population of the country speaks the native languages like Igbo and Yoruba. The Nigerian Pidgin English which is called as broken or Pidgin English is popular which differs in different regions influencing the slang and dialect. Pidgin English is used in the Niger Delta regions in Sapele, Warri, Port Harcourt, Ewu, Benin City, Agenebode etc.
2.3 TEACHERS’ BEHAVIOUR IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Antell (1991) , noted that the use of eye or appropriate eye contact stimulates and alerts the students. According to Creemers (1994), Aspects of teaching include the following Positive attitude of the teacher towards the students, the development of pleasant social/psychological climate in the classroom, having high expectation of what pupils can achieve, lesson clarity , effective time management, strong lesson lecturing, the use of variety of teaching methods, using and incorporating pupils’ ideas and using appropriate and varied questioning. Smith. (1995), defined teachers’ behaviour or expressiveness as ability of the teacher to communicate to students through the use of appropriate words, gestures and looks. This is of paramount importance for English Teacher to be able to communicate effectively to the students. Smith also opined that teachers’ behaviour brings about positive classroom interaction, invariably arouse students’ interest and motivation to learn even difficult topics, irrespective of gender. He also discovered that gazing at students promotes their attentiveness and involvement and positive regard for the teacher. Also Babalola (2000), described teachers’ behaviour or effectiveness in terms of four observable behaviours, which include Physical movement, Voice inflection, Eye contact and Humour. At this point the researchers are trying to explore those factors that make a teacher effective in teaching and learning process. Recent research revealed that most variation in overall school effectiveness is due to classroom level factors rather than school level factors. For this reasons it is important that the schools be identified with qualified and effective teacher who have mastery of subject matter and can effectively control classroom through effective management rather than just mere story building of classroom as the case in our schools today most especially in Sokoto State. It is in view of the foregoing discussion, that it becomes necessary for the researchers to deduce that effective teaching and learning process of English language can be accomplished by way of the teachers’ composure, voice clarity, classroom management to mention but a few.
2.4 THE CONCEPT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING TEACHING Mahuta M.G (2009), defined teaching as the interaction between students and the teachers on a particular subject matter. He added that in this type of interaction, there may be on e or many students that differ in many respects, such as young and old, bright and below average, intelligent, physically normal, physically challenged, highly motivated, rich or poor as well as male or female. Ogionwo (2006), perceived teaching as the means in which the society deliberately socializes the younger generation to fit into adult life by teaching them the norms and values of their respective communities. Also according to Mc Farland (1973), teaching is not just a technique, it is partly a relation of oneself and others. It is a sophisticated exploration of intellect, personality, circumstance and social interaction. Conclusively, teaching can therefore be considered as activity which include academic guidance and intellectual motivation. It also include classroom, laboratory and studio instruction, all of which are with a view to changing the behavior of the learner. LEARNING Learning as a concept has been defined by many scholars most especially psychologists, they based the concept of learning on three criteria. That is for learning to take place there must be change in behavior, the behavior must be relatively stable, and the change must be as result of exposure to conditions in the environment. Travers (1977), defined learning as relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of exposure to conditions in the environment. Also Mukherjee (1978) is of the opinion that learning is an inference from some performance of the organism manifesting change of behavior. He argued that change in behavior must be permanent and they do imply gain to the organism for his/her survival. However, Zanden (1980) perceived the concept of learning to be the relatively permanent change in behavior or capability that result from experience. He was concerned with relatively stable change that occur in an individual behaviour as a result of interaction with his environment. He also noted that all these changes have no connection with the growth process. Hence Maturation should not be perceived as learning. Moreover, learning can be characterized by the following changes learning has to change behaviour, the change should be relatively permanent, the change should be as a result of experience, it is an internal process and learning occur under conditions of direct attention and a deliberate effort. Nevertheless, in teaching and learning situation there are various factors to be considered such factors include pupils or learners, the subject matter to be taught this means that in the process of teaching the teacher, the subject matter and the learner are important factors for successful teaching and learning .
2.5 THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Every profession requires its members to acquire certain specialized abilities and teaching of English Language is no exception. A professional English Language teacher must perform the “work of teaching”, we mean the core task that teachers must execute is to help pupils learn. This includes activities carried on both inside and beyond the classroom, such as leading a discussion, probing students’ responses, reviewing material for a English test, listening to and assessing students’ oral reading, explaining an interpretation of oral English and helping them in pronunciation, talking with parents, evaluating students’ papers, planning and creating and maintaining an orderly and supportive environment for learning. The work of teaching includes broad cultural competence and relational sensitivity, communication skills and the combination of rigor and imagination fundamentals to effective practice. Teachers’ behavior is extremely important for successful teaching and learning of English Language as a subject, skillful teaching requires appropriately using and interactively specific moves and activities in particular cases and contexts, based on knowledge and understanding of one’s pupils and on the application of professional expertise. Fischler and Zimmer (1968), research, has great relevance to the study in that, same observational format was adopted in both studies. But instead of using a trained observer, the researchers did the recording themselves. Moreover, their research was specifically designed for teaching of General Science. This one at hand is only designed for the teaching of English Language. Nevertheless, they agreed that their work requires further refinement, of course, it is what this project aims at. Flanders (1960) analyzed teachers behavior and found the interaction between the teacher and his pupil, and how it can be improved. The purpose of his study was to keep the trait of selected events occurring during classroom interaction. It was with the aid of this fact that classroom climate containing the sequence of behavior. Several items were included in Flander’s interaction analysis. They include: Accepts feeling, praises or encouragement, using ideas of students, asking questions, lecturing, giving directions, criticizing or justifying authority, the pupils response, Pupils talk initiation and silence, or confusion Using the system of ten categories shown above, the researcher at the end of each three seconds periods decided which category best expressed the communication of behavior during that three seconds interval, he was able to put down the numbers of that categories while observing. Flanders’ ten categories are now called the flanders interaction categories analysis (F.I.C.A) which includes verbal and non-verbal behaviors. He came out with the result that predominantly was found to exist in class room which had slightly higher measuring of initial ability. Flanders (1960) work is related to the research at hand because he used an observational instrument in doing his research. However, his research was concerned with pupils’ interaction while the one at hand is based mainly concerned with the effect of teachers’ behaviour in the teaching and learning English language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the language. Furthermore, we are of the opinion that the three seconds intervals for recording observational changes in behaviour was rather too short to record any reliable behaviour changes without overlapping.
2.6 MATERIALS IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
It has been observed that the use of teaching aids was seriously neglected in the teaching of Languages, English Language in particular in secondary schools (Okpala,1975), noticing this idea mentioned that the use of teaching materials in facilitating changes and improving teaching and learning process was not receiving any adequate attention in Nigerian Secondary Schools by the government.In adequate practical skills of the teachers and laziness. Umar (1975) analyzed and evaluated the teaching of biology in Kano State. He also used questionnaire interview, and observation to identify certain behaviours. He came out with the result that only few schools had a well equipped laboratory and most teachers neglected the use of audio-visual materials even when available. Both works used observational schedule but he adopted or used questionnaire interview. The use of interviews and questionnaire will not give adequate in sight in to the behaviours of these teachers because some of them may not supply the actual information concerning their behaviours during classroom teaching. Therefore, to facilitate the teaching of English Language and also make the classroom rich and lively teaching is of paramount importance, the materials include: audio-aids (e.g Tape recorder), visual aids (e.g Cardboard , Flannegraph), and audio visual aids (e.g Television)
From the analysis, it is evident that the behavior of teachers plays a significant role in the educating English language students, going in the direction of this work how much the behavior of the teachers affect the effectiveness and proficiency of teaching and learning of English Language, by looking at their basic needs as children under the care of their immediate environment, their parent and teachers in the school. Meeting some of the basic needs will enable the children to grow up psychologically, emotionally and intellectually balanced. The extent to which they enter school better equipped to deal with the socio – emotional aspect of schooling with a very sound communication skills. In conclusion there can only be proficiency and effectiveness in teaching and learning situation if the following can be put into consideration, a sound and good mastery of the subject to be taught by the teacher, good communication skills and clarity of voice should be possessed by the teacher, respect for students by way of tolerating some of their behavior and their learning conditions which may arise at the time, resulting from their different orientation and background. The present work aimed at finding the effect of teachers’ behaviour in the teaching and learning English language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the language, and also resolving the above problem through careful observation and recording of teachers’ behaviours during some of their lessons, and also provide possible suggestions on how to tackle the situation.
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methods and procedures used in carrying out the study. This is an indepth research on the survey of the effect of teachers’ behaviour in the teaching and learning of English language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the language. It is primarily aimed at investigating the possible influence the teachers’ behaviour have on the academic performance of the students and how much it affects their achievement in English Language. This is in view to recommend measures of controlling teachers’ unnecessary behaviuors during interaction with students. This chapter consists headings which include research design, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study is a descriptive research. It is designed to survey the effect of teachers’ behaviour in the teaching and learning of English language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the language. Nwana (1981), refers to descriptive research as the best method which includes the use of questionnaire or interviews in the collection of data. The researchers used questionnaire to obtain information needed for this study. To identify the strength of the responses to various questions, percentage would be calculated and all the data obtained would be analyzed.
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
This study is to survey the effect of teachers’ behaviour in the teaching and learning of English language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the language. The study will include a minimum of two and maximum of four English language teachers preferably (males and females) and the senior students from all the selected secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis. The researchers hope to visit some of the secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis and out of the school to be visited only ten students will be selected. The selection of the schools will be based on spatial location, size of the classes, type and nature of the school system i.e either day or boarding, mixed sexes or single etc. The schools selected as shown in the table below will represent the whole secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis. TABLE 1: Some Selected Secondary Schools In Sokoto Metropolis S/N SCHOOLS 1. Nagarta College Sokoto 2. Sheik Abubakar Gummi Memorial Secondary School 3. Sokoto Teachers College Sokoto 4. Government Secondary School, Runjin Sambo, Sokoto 5. Sultan Bello Secondary School Sokoto 6. Government Technical College, Sokoto 7. A. A Raji Special School Sokoto 8. Sultan Abubakar College Sokoto 9. Nana Girls Secondary School Sokoto 10. Hafsat Ahmadu Bello Model Arabic Secondary School Sokoto SOURCE: Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technical Education Sokoto State. The above schools were under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technical Education respectively. This is to ensure that the schools selected are subjected to the same administrative conditions. Moreover, a deliberate attempt will be made to ensure an equal treatment of these selected schools as much as possible.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES.
A sample is a listed number of elements selected from a population as a representation of the population (Ndagi 1984). The sample of this study comprised of ten (10) secondary schools selected randomly and the selection can be subjected to change when the need arise in due course. A total of 100 respondents, ten from each school will be selected and also a total of twenty (20) – fourty (40), with minimum of two (2) and maximum of four (4) English teachers from the selected secondary schools. These sample chosen will therefore be representative for the whole population, and inference will be drawn from them.
The major research instrument to be adopted in this study will be survey based on the research question drawn by the researchers. In the process of data collection, the researchers will use structured questions in form of a questionnaire whereby respondents will choose/tick on the available options that will be provided and thereafter express their opinions based on options provided in the questions. The questionnaires will be designed in such a way that items of information required from respondent will be minimal to enable the respondent to promptly fill and return them. Also a verbal interview will conducted with the school heads to have more clue about the study. The questionnaires are of two set namely 1. Questionnaire for Teachers 2. Questionnaire for students
3.5.1 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
By validity it means the degree to which the measuring instruments used in the data collection actually serve the purpose intended, Galadima (2009). The instrument adopted for this research was presented to an expert in English department, of Shehu Shagari college of Education, Sokoto who cross checked the questions there in and approved them as good enough to solicit information needed for the study.
3.5.1 RELIABILITY OF INSTUMENT
According to Galadima (2009), the reliability of any test is said to be concerned with the consistency of the measurement’’. The instrument adopted for this research was found reliable as it was cross checked by an expert and confirmed to be worthy enough to seek for information. The researchers also adopted a test and re–test of the instrument, and a meaningful reliability index was reached.
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
In the process of data collection, the researchers in the survey limited the use of questionnaires to the schools to be visited and the interview aspects to the questions are structured as the respondents only have to select / tick the one he/she feels is his /her perception. The responses of the teachers and students goes a long way in helping the researchers to identify how much the teachers behaviours affects the students and the teaching and learning process of English Language.
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The method to be adopted in this research is based on statistical table by distributing the respondents according to their answers from the surveyed For the purpose of data analysis simple statistical tools will be used in most cases, frequency in tabular form and percentage would be used. This is necessary because the data obtained are qualitative and fixed. CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter is presentation of data, information collected from the questionnaire issued to the respondents, it will be presented and analyzed through frequency table and simple percentages. However, a total of a hundred questionnaires were prepared for distribution to the students of the ten selected secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis, but the purpose for which the questionnaires were prepared could not be achieved as the students have been on break from July this year and will not return to school until middle of September and that may be a constraint on the part of the researchers. It is in this respect that the researchers chose to adopt the research instrument meant for the teachers alone to represent for that of the teachers and that of the students and a total of fourty (40) questionnaires were distributed to teachers. The researchers distributed the questionnaires at four (4) per schools among the ten selected secondary schools in the Sokoto metropolis. The researchers reached the schools and collected the filled questionnaires from the respondents. Moreover, for the purpose of this research the analysis aimed at analyzing based on the statistical table, that is analysis through simple frequency table and simple percentage.
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION
The data presentation and analysis will be made in two phases. Phase one will be simple table and simple percentage from the response to the questionnaire of the teachers. While the phase two will be the test for hypothesis through the use of t-test.
4.2.1 ANALYSIS OF DATA
Q1. What teaching qualification do you have?
TABLE II: Table showing teachers response RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE NCE (English related) 20 50% BA. Ed English Language 09 22.5% BA. English Language 11 27.5% TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012 From the table above 50% of the respondents posses the Nigeria certificate in Education (in English related courses), 22.5% posses Bachelor of Art Education in English Language, 27.5% of the respondents posses Bachelor of Art in English Language, it can therefore be deduced from the obtained data that 50% of the English Language teachers in Sokoto metropolis posses NCE in English Language and English related course and that being the minimum requirement for teaching in Nigeria, while other 50% was shared among graduates of Education English and graduate of English. At this juncture it can be said that 62.5% of English teachers have passed through proper training for teaching profession, there by having 50% of NCE holders and 33.5% degree holders in English respectively. Q2. How many years of teaching experience do you have? TABLEIII :
Table showing teachers response
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 2 07 17.5% 3 07 17.5% 5 11 27.5% 7-Above 15 37.5%
TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012 The above table represent the years of teaching experience and 37.5% responded to have spent 7 years and above in the teaching job, 27.5% also responded to have spent five (5) years in the teaching profession. Among the respondents were those who have spent just two and three years in the job from the responses the researchers are able to conclude that 35% of English teachers in the sokoto metropolis have teaching experience of two and three years respectively.
Q3. What is the age range of students in your class?
TABLE IV: Table showing teachers responses
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 14-16 07 17.5% 17-19 20 50% 20-22 13 32.5%
TOTAL 40 100%
Source: Field Survey 2012
Table iv above is showing the age range of the English students in our secondary schools, 17.5% of the respondents, responded that age range of the students in their class is 14-16, 50% responded to be having the students with age range of 17-19 and 32.5% responded to have the age range of 20-22. Therefore, we can conclude from the above responses that the students within the age range of 17-19 dominate the population of secondary school English students. Q4. How does your students behave in the classroom? TABLE V: Table showing teachers responses
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Excellent 17 42.5% Very good 10 25% Good 10 25% Bad 03 7.5%
TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012 From the analysis of the table above, the students of secondary schools in the Sokoto metropolis are of good conduct in the classroom, this is a result of the survey carried out by the researchers which resulted to having responses of 42.5% of the respondents that their students behave excellently in the class, 25% are of very good behaviour, and 7.5% are of bad behaviour. At this juncture it can be concluded that only 7.5% out the 100% are not of good conduct while 92.5% conduct themselves in a good manner in the classroom.
Q5. How do you treat your students in the classroom?
TABLE VI: Table showing teacher responses
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Friendly 25 60% Moderate 12 30% Harsh 04 10%
TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012 Table VI above shows that 60% of the English teachers in the secondary schools are friendly to their students as they shared their problems and help them find solutions in many cases, 30% of the respondents are moderate in their interaction with the students and only 10% of the teachers are harsh on the students. It can therefore be concluded that the teachers are of good cordial relationship with the students, except for those who claimed to be stubborn and felt some level of superiority that they could be dealt with. Q6. Who do you think is fit to teach English Language in secondary schools? TABLE VII: Table showing teachers responses RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE A male 10 25% A female 14 35% Both 16 40% TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012 Table vii above is on the teacher who is fit to teach English Language in secondary schools, and 25% responded that a male teacher is best fit for teaching English Language, 35% of the respondents felt the female counter part is best for the teaching of English language, while 40% of the respondents chose that both the male and the female fit for the teaching of English Language in the secondary school. It is in this respect that the researchers conclude that both male and female fits in as they all have different role to play to enhance effective teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools. Q7. Is there any significance different between behaviour displayed by a male and a female English teachers? TABLE VIII: Table showing teachers’ response
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Yes 11 27.5% No 29 72.5%
TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012 The responses of English teachers as to whether there is any significant difference between the behaviours displayed by male and female teachers was 27.5% Yes and 72.5% No, it can therefore be concluded that the behaviours displayed by male and female teachers is of meaningful significant difference.
Q8. What are the behaviours displayed in the classroom by English teachers?
TABLE IX: Table showing teachers response
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Mastery of subject matter 20 50% Incompetency 2 5% Make class boring 4 10% Make classroom rich and lively Good classroom management 10 25% No response 4 10%
TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey
Table ix shows that 50% of mastery of subject matter is the behaviour displayed in the classroom by English teachers, 5% also responded that incompetency is one of the behaviour displayed by some English teachers, 10% responded that some teachers make the class to be bored, 25% make class rich and lively, and manage the class effectively, 4% responded to none of options. From the analysis, it can be concluded that the English teachers in Sokoto metropolis possess mastery of their subject matter. Q9. Which of the genders dominates in the teaching of English Language in Sokoto metropolis?
TABLE X: Table showing teachers response
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Male 22 55% Female 18 45%
TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012
The table above shows responses of the teachers with respect to the gender that dominates in the teaching of English in the metropolis, 45% responded that female dominate in the teaching of English Language in the metropolis, 55% responded that male dominate, and going by the responses, the researchers hereby conclude that the males dominate in the teaching of English language in Sokoto metropolis. Q10. How often do you make use of instructional materials? TABLE XI: Table showing teachers responses
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Frequently 15 37.5% When the need arise 18 45% Not at all 07 17.5% TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012 The table shows that 37.5% of the English teachers in the metropolis frequently make use of instructional materials, 45% of them make use of it when the need arises, 17.5% don’t care to make use of instructional materials. At this stage one can conclude that 87.5% of the teachers make use of instructional materials and this will go to a meaningful extent in enhancing effective teaching and learning. 11. Do you think teachers’ behaviour have any significant effect on the students achievement in English Language. (a) Yes (b) No
TABLE XII: Table showing teachers response
RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Yes 19 47.5% No 21 52.5%
TOTAL 40 100% Source: Field Survey 2012 From table xii the teachers’ response to Yes was 47.5%, and those that responded No were 52.5%, also from table vi some of the teachers happened to be friendly with the students, some treat them by not being too friendly and not being too harsh, while some of the teachers chose to be harsh on the students. The teachers 47.5% responded to yes and 52.5% responded to No therefore this make the researchers to tentatively conclude in view of hypothesis III that there is no any significant effect on students achievement in English Language, as the teachers behaviour whether friendly or harsh is aimed at the betterment of the students. 4.2.2
TEST FOR HYPOTHESES
This research work at this stage aim at finding out whether the hypothesis stated for the research can be accepted or rejected. The data obtained from the survey will be used to test for the hypotheses and t-test will be adopted. The table below shows the test for hypotheses as stated for this research, the hypotheses include: 1. There is no significant difference in behavior displayed by English Language teachers in classroom. 2. There is no significant difference between the behavior displayed by male and female English Language teachers. 3. There is no any significant effect on the students achievement in English Language as a result of teachers behaviour. TABLE XII: Table showing level of test for hypotheses HYPOTHESES LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANT T-TABULATED T-CALCULATED DECISION 1 0.05 5.63 2.20 ACCEPTED 2 0.05 5.63 7.70 ACCEPTED 3 0.05 5.63 20.00 REJECTED SOURCE: Research Data/ Mathematical and Statistical table. 4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS The table above shows the test for hypotheses stated for this research, it can be deduced from the result of the test that hypotheses stated for this research were accepted and rejected accordingly. Putting into consideration the rule governing t-test which states that when the t-calculated < t-tabulated the value is accepted and when t-calculated > t-tabulated the value is rejected. At this juncture the researchers can deduce from the result of the test that hypotheses I and II are valid and effective, as there is no significant difference in behavior displayed by English Language teachers in classroom, there is no significant differences between the behavior displayed by male and female English Language teachers. Nevertheless, the hypothesis III has also been found null and void as proved by the result of the analysis. Hence the fact that there is no any significant effect on the students’ achievement in English Language as a result of teachers behaviour is hereby rejected as the behaviour of the teachers was found to have affected the students achievement in English Language directly or indirectly.
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter is the concluding part of the research work titled “A survey of the effect of teachers behaviour in the teaching and learning of English language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the language.” The research which has looked into the rate at which teachers behaviours affect the students’ achievement in English Language. The issue of teachers’ behaviour has gone a long way in affecting the students achievement in school, not only in English Language, but also in other Art subjects even in the sciences, as it has led to withdrawal of many students from school when the condition of the school become unbearable and the likes. It is in view of this that this research assesses the teachers’ behaviour, how it affects the students’ achievement in English Language and the possible solution in the Sokoto metropolis.
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS This survey has been a very interesting one, and the researchers have to the best of their ability assessed the teachers’ behaviour towards the students, and the rate at which the behaviour affected the teaching and learning process. The researchers in their quest to the demand of this work selected ten schools for sampling of the questionnaire among the teachers and students, but due to time constraint only the teachers’ questionnaire was adopted. However, the analysis carried out in the course of this research is in two phases, the phase I is the analysis of the responses to questionnaire of the English Language teachers of the selected secondary schools in a simple frequency and percentage table. The second phase is that of the test for hypotheses using the t-test. Also from the survey it can be deduced from table vi that 60% of the teachers treats their students not as students but as their friends, 30% treats them in their own way though not friendly and not harsh, while 10% treat them with harshness all these have proved to have effect of the students’ achievement in English Language. Nevertheless, the behaviour displayed by both male and female teachers is of meaningful significant difference with reference to table viii.
5.2 CONCLUSION The research titled “a survey of effect of teachers’ behaviour in teaching and learning of English Language with regard to proficiency achievement in the language” has been extensively studied, and based on the survey carried out, the data obtained, the result of the analysis and the summary it can be concluded that: There is no significant difference in behavior displayed by English Language teachers in the Sokoto metropolis. There is significant differences between the behavior displayed by male and female English Language teachers. To this end, the hypotheses stated for this research have been proved to be correct by the result of the test and are hereby valid for this research except for hypothesis III which was proved wrong by the result of its testing and thus a null and void hypothesis.
5.3 RECOMMENDATION The researchers at this stage have the following recommendations to make. 1. The English Language teachers should Endeavour to make use of instructional materials as it goes a long way in making a class lively and rich. 2. The school administrators should ensure that before the recruitment of any English teacher they must possess the minimum qualification for teaching in Nigeria. 3. The school should ensure that the teachers attend conferences and also organize internal workshop for teachers. 4. The government should employ more Qualified English Language teachers to ease the work of the existing ones and facilitate effective teaching and learning. 5. The government should provide adequate reading materials and text books in our secondary schools to the teaching and learning of English language in the metropolis
5.4 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY The following can be put into consideration for future purpose, in any research of this kind. 1. The researchers may consider making use of two or three subject instead of one as in this case. 2. The researchers should have more time to enable him carry out extensive research and collect relevant data from his/her sample schools 3. The researchers should use examination result of the students or even subject them to writing a test to get the relevant data needed. 4. The researchers should make use of questionnaires should to seek information from the student and the teachers as well.
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SHEHU SHAGARI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, SOKOTO SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES DDEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE QUESTIONNAIRE (STUDENTS)
This is a questionnaire prepared by students of the department of English Language, school of Languages, Shehu Shagari college of Education, in the quest to carry out research on “The survey the effect of teachers’ behaviour in the teaching and learning of English language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the language”. It in view of this that we urge you to fill in the information there in as appropriate to the best of your ability as your response will be treated with confidence.
SECTION : A
SEX:…………………………………. AGE:………………………………… SCHOOL……………………………..
SECTION : B
1. Do you like attending English Language class? (a) Yes (b) No
2. If yes why? (a) Because of the way my teachers presents (b) To learn the language
3. If No why? (a) Because the teachers’ character (b) The class use to be boring
4. Does your English teacher teach well? (a) Yes (b) No
5. Does your English Teacher make use of instructional materials? (A) Yes (B) No
6. How often does your English teacher make use of instructional Materials? (a) Regularly (b) sometimes (c) not at all
7. How does your English teacher behave towards you in the classroom? (a) In a polite manner (b) Moderate (c) very harsh
8. A male or female teacher which one do you prefer? (a) Male (b) Female (c) Both (d) Any one
8b. If male why?…………………………………………….. …………………………………………. If No why?……………………………………………………………………………………….
9. Does your English teacher encourage you to ask questions in class? (a) Yes (b) No
10(a). Is there any significant difference between the behavior displayed by male and female English language teachers. 10(b)
. Is there any significant difference displayed between the behavior displayed by English Language teachers and teachers of other discipline. 11. How often does your English teachers came to the classroom for lessons? (a) Very punctual (b) Not punctual SHEHU SHAGARI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, SOKOTO SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES DDEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE QUESTIONNAIRE (TEACHERS) This is a questionnaire prepared by students of the department of English Language, school of Languages, Shehu Shagari college of Education, in the quest to carry out research on “The survey the effect of teachers’ behaviour in the teaching and learning of English language with regard to proficiency achievement of the students in the language”. It in view of this that we urge you to fill in the information there in as appropriate to the best of your ability as your response will be treated with confidence.
SECTION : A SEX:…………………………………. AGE:………………………………… SCHOOL……………………………..
1. What teaching qualification do you have? (a) Nce (English related) (b) BA. Ed English Language (c) BA. English Language. Please speficify if none…………………………………..
2. How many years of teaching experience do you have? (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 5 If none pleases specify…………………….
3. What is the age range of students do have in your class? (a) 14-16 (b) 17-19 (c) 20-22 If none please specify…………….
4. How does your students behave in class? (a) Excellent (b) Very good (c) Good (d) Bad
5. How do you treat your students in the classroom? (a) Friendly (b) Moderate (c) Harsh. If none please specify…………
6. Who do you think is fit to English Language in Secondary school? (a) Male (b) Female (c) Both
7. Is there any significance different between behaviour displayed by a male and a female teacher? (a) Yes (b) No If others please specify…………………………………..
8. What are the behaviours displayed in classroom by English teachers? (a) Mastery of subject matter (b) Incompetency (c) Make class boring. Others please specify……………………………………………………………………..
9. Which gender dominate in the teaching of English language in Secondary schools? (a) Male (b) Female 10. How often do you make use of instructional materials? (a) Frequently (b) when the need arise (c) Not at all. If others please specify………………………………………………….
11. Do you think teachers behaviour have any significant effect on the students achievement in English Language. (a) Yes (b) NO