EDU 403. ( EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY III) 23/08/2011
INTRODUCTION TO INTELLEGENCE
Many people have tried to define intelligence in different ways. Some says it is a verbal ability and problem solving skills others says it is the ability to adapt to and learn from lives everyday experiences, when we combine these two view we arrive at a more acceptable and broad definition of intelligence.
Intelligence can therefore be define as verbal ability, problem solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from lives everyday experiences. Intelligence is concern with the cognitive behavior of the individual. Weschler (1958), define intelligence as the aggregate of global capacity of the individual to act purposely, think rationally and deal effectively with his environment.
NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE
It has been a big task for scientist seeking to measure a factor that constitute intelligence Cattel and Hebb believe that there are more than one intelligence. Spearman believe that all intellectual ability have one foundational function in common, and this foundational function might consist of a group of function. He believe that there is a general factor in all intellectual behavior, there is also a specific factor whose important varies from subject to subject area. General factors are those things which are common to everybody while specific factors are those things that are restricted to different individual or in different subject area. Some psychologist believe that intelligence has two folds.
- Fluid intelligence
- Crystallize intelligence
FLUID INTELLIGENCE is what we are born with or inert ability while CRYSTALIZE INTELLIGENCE develop from the interaction between the fluid and the environment. Hebb (1948), agree that there are two types of intelligence
- Intelligence A
- Intelligence B
INTELLIGENCE A has to do with inert ability while INTELLIGENCE B has to do with environmental influence.
INFLUENCE OF HERIDITY AND ENVIRONMENT ( NATURE AND NURTURE IN INTELLIGENCE)
Some scientist claim that intelligence is primarily determine by heredity while others claim that it is determine by environment, the second group experimented with identical twins reared in different environment they find out that identical twins reared in different environment have varied in intellectual ability, this ability favoured the one reared in rich environment. However, with the emerging view of nature and nurture it is agreed that both heredity and environment plays significant role in intellectual development therefore learning environment should be made rich.
THE CONCEPT OF INTELLIGENT QUOTIENT (I.Q)
In 1904, a man Alfred Binnet was appointed by the French ministry of Education to study procedure for the Education of mentally retarded children in respect of his commission’s objective, Alfred Binnet and Simon his student prepared the first scale for assessing intelligence in 1905, the test emphasize judgement, comprehension and reasoning as important component of intelligence. However, the test has undergone series of revision. The concept of I.Q refers to a person’s mental age divided by his chronological age and multiply by hundred.
This will give you an idea of how an individual perform in relation to others of comparable age. I
If a child is 10 years old and his mental ability is that of a 12 years old child. Calculate his I.Q
The Intellegence quotient of such a child is 120
If a child is 12 years old and his mental age is 8 years old child. Calculate his I.Q
The intellegence quotient of such child is 66.6.