UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH WORK
THE EFFECT OF BROKEN HOMES ON SCIENCE EDUCATION STUDENTS
(A case study of some selected secondary school in Sokoto south local government)
BEING A PROJECT SUBMITTED
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT
FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR’S DEGREE IN SCIENCE EDUCATION,
EDUCATION CHEMISTRY, DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND EXTENSION SERVICES
USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY, SOKOTO.
This project has been read and approved by the Department of Science and Vocational Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. This is in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor’s Degree in Science Education, Education Chemistry.
Mal. S.S Matazu Date
Professor. Ibrahim Galadima Date
Head of Department
This work is dedicated to my parents Alhaji M.Z Mustapha and Mallama Khadijah Muhammad Mustapha and my beloved siblings Abdullahi Mustapha, Halima Mustapha, Rukayah Mustapha, Maryam Mustapha, Yusuf and Ismail Mustapha
All praise is due to Allah the custodian of the universe and the hereafter, for preserving my soul alive to this day and making this work a success. May His mercy and blessing be upon His servant and messenger Muhammad (S.A.W), his family, companion and all those who follow his guidance till the last day.
It is of great important to express my profound gratitude to my untiring supervisor in person of Mal. S.S Matazu for his accessibility and great attention, critical assessment, advice, support, encouragement and special interest develop in my work from its inception to completion, sir I sincerely acknowledge that, also the understanding of his beautiful wife Mrs. Elizabeth Olayika during the course of supervision of this work.
I must express my appreciation to my parents Alh. M.Z Mustapha, Mallama Khadijah Muhammad Mustapha, Mallama Madinat Hassan, Alh. Yunusa Bhadmus, Mallama. Nusirat Bhadmus for their moral and financial support given to me not only towards this project but throughout my staying in the university. May Almighty Allah grant them long life and prosperity to reap the fruit of their labour.
My sincere appreciation and gratitude goes to my dearest lovely brothers and sisters Abdullahi Mustapha, Halima Mustapha, Rukayah Mustapha, Maryam Mustapha, Yusuf Mustapha and Ismail Mustapha for your love, caring, understanding and encouragement to make my dream come true may Almighty Allah strengthen our love and continue to shower his blessing our family. Amen
With heart full of excitement, I will like to acknowledge the effort of Prof. A.A Salawu, Prof. I Galadima, Mal. Babangida, Mr. Mathew Cyril, Prof. F.A Kalgo and Dr. Birnin Yauri who taught me research and statistics and analytical chemistry respectively during the course of my studies. I will also like to appreciate the effort of my lecturers Dr. K.J Umar, Mal. Chika, Mal. M.G Liman, Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim, Dr. Yahaya Kamar, Prof. M.A Wasagu, Dr. Rabi Muhammad and all the lecturers of department of science and vocational education, pure and applied chemistry and the entire faculty of education for the skills and knowledge impacted in me.
I must also acknowledge the the good work of all the authors of the reference materials I used in this work as well as the principal of the schools used as my sample and collected data from, may God reward you abundantly.
It could not have been easy and achieved without the support of my course mates Abdulrahaman Kabir, Nafisa M Nalado, Rufai Aliyu Jatto, Yusuf Mustapha, Sadiya M Rabiu, Ibrahim Ilyasu, Ibrahim Muhammad, Saudatu B Bashir, Abdullahi U Abdullahi, Kabiru JIbril, Mustapha Ahmad, Bashir Bello, Lawal Ismail, Ibrahim Tambari, Hasiya Suleiman Nagogo, Raji Abdulrahaman, Muhammad Nyalli and my class representative His excellency Ismail Abdulkarim Imam to mention but few I lack word to use in thanking all I could say I wish you all the best in all your endeavours.
All work but no play make me a dull boy, my inexhaustible appreciation goes to all members of the campus association of the year Junior Chamber International most especially my personal assistance when I was the Lo. President Jc. Hadiza Muhammad Otaki, my backbone Jc. Afolabi Khadija, my mentor in Jci Jc. Aremu Kazeem Olalekan and his beautiful wife Jc. Rahinat Ahmad, the immediate Dot, Jc. Suleiman Kazeem, Jc. Adamu Shuaibu, Jc. Issah Umar,Jc. Halima Akanbi Abimbola, Jc. Imam Fulani Jamilat, Jc. Jamilu Ibrahim, Jc. Jafar Ahmad Gele above all my successor Jc. Abdulkadir Mansoor Kayode to mention few I appreciate all your support and contribution in making better student through Jc.
However, the effort of my good friend and my boss at the Nacj must be appreciated in person of Ibrahim ShehuAbdulkadir Jatto and Mutiullah Akinsanya for standing by me in the pursuit of my carrier and also Fatima Muhammad Sanusi and Abdulwahab Suleiman all of whom I work with at the caretaker committee of the National association of Campus journalist and the entire members of the association.
I must acknowledge the support of my brothers and sisters in school in person of my dear sister Jimoh Sekinat, Adeniyi Habib, Muhammad T Abdullahi, Sofiu Alayande, Bello Tawakalitu, Rukayah B Abdulazeez and all those whose name could not mentioned you are sincerely appreciated.
I will also like to express my sincere gratitude to my cousins Ganiyat Abdulsalam, Halima Balogun, Muhammad T Jimoh, Yusuf Hassan, Maryam Hassan, Hikima Hassan, Saheed Mustapha to mention but few for their word of advise and prayers. My sincere gratitude and appreciation goes to my dear friend for her love, caring, and prayers in person of Rukayyah Abdulazeez, you mean a lot to me.
At this juncture I lack words to use to express my heartly appreciation to my twin brother in school in person of Salisu Muhammad Wakili for his love, caring, understanding, support and word of encouragement in the past four years, indeed you are a true brother, keep the flag of brotherhood flying the sky is limit. And also the contribution of my one and only brother and friend Salihu Saheed you are appreciated for your understanding and support.
My Profound gratitude and heart of appreciation goes to my beloved Aminah Yunusa Bhadmus for love, caring, understanding, encouragement, word of prayers in wishing well through out my carrier, I lack words to thank you and all your siblings all I could say is I love you. Also my beloved son and little cousin Abdulsalam Hassan.
Finally, I wish to thank all those who have contributed in one way or the other toward the success of this work whose name could not be mentioned in making this work a reality.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE. i
APPROVAL PAGE. ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. 2
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM… 4
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS. 5
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES. 6
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. 6
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. 7
1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY. 8
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 INTRODUCTION.. 9
2.1 CONCEPT OF HOME, SCIENCE STUDENTS AND EDUCATION.. 10
2.2 IMPORTANCE OF THE HOME. 13
2.3 NEEDS OF SCIENCE STUDENTS AS CHILDREN.. 15
2.4 THE ROLE OF HOME IN SCIENCE STUDENTS EDUCATION.. 18
2.5 BROKEN HOMES. 19
2.6 INFLUENCE OF BROKEN HOME ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SCIENCESTUDENTS 20
2.7 CONCLUSION.. 24
3.1 INTRODUCTION.. 25
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN.. 25
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY. 26
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES. 28
3.5 INSTRUMENTATION.. 28
3.5.1 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT. 29
3.5.2 RELIABILITY OF INSTUMENT. 29
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION.. 30
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS. 30
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 INTRODUCTION.. 32
4.1 DATA PRENTATION.. 33
4.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA.. 46
4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS. 49
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 INTRODUCTION.. 50
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS. 51
5.2 CONCLUSION.. 52
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS. 53
5.4 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY. 54
The home is the primary institution for children, home as perceived by Abdulganiyu (1997), Christe (2009), defined home as a place in which an individual or a family can rest and store personal property.
Haven’t define the concept of home it is therefore important to define family. The family can therefore, be looked at as a social group characterized by common resident, economic, cooperation and production.
When a child is born, the family is the first primary group with which they come into contact. Transmission of social values of right and wrong, what is morally and religiously accepted or condemned by the family, it follows therefore that by the time a child attained five to seven years of age he must have learnt what are his rights, obligations and roles within the society.
However, the background of a students go along way to determine his/her individuality. As the child enters schools, he/she will start manifesting different attitudes and expectations. In addition they may be of the same age group, developed at different rates and so may be able to cope with the intellectual and social task of the school in varying extent.
However, a home can either be stable or broken. A stable home is one in which both parent (mother and father) lives together with their children, while a broken home is the one in which one or both of the parents are not living together with the children. It is the level at which the home operates that determine the academic achievement of a science students in school. Broken homes been it unstable can influence the achievement of a science students academically.
Also, children that have suffered from neglect or lack of love (in a broken homes) are known to be psychologically imbalanced to face the realities of life. When there is disunity in the family, or a difference between a mother or a father, the child is caught in the middle and will be at disadvantage. According to Blackby (1999), Adequate research need to be conducted in this direction to ensure smooth transition of children from early stages to adulthood.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The child’s home and his family offer the best education since his parents serve as teachers. The parents lay the foundation for the desired social, moral, emotional, spiritual and intellectual well being of the child. The training a received from home is of greatest importance in his/her total personality formation and his/her academic achievements as a science student. It can also be observed that the pattern of life in the home (stable or broken), the economic and social status of the family in the community and many other conditions that give the home a distinctive character can influence the achievement of science student in school.
Abdulganiyu (1997), added that research have shown that children differs in various ways as a result of variables of their home background such as socio – economic status, parental attitude to school and child rearing practices. These home background variables are also found to be positively related to children’s academic achievement, more especially science students that need care and love.
Similarly, Giwa (1997), have investigated the factors within the students home background or family that affect their performance s in school, variables such as socio – economic status, family size, birth order, parental attitude, child rearing practices, parental absence or presence have been found to affect social and intellectual learning experiences of children in schools. This is so because children are born with some psychological, emotional and intellectual needs such as need for love and security, the need for new experiences, the need for praise and recognition and the need for responsibility. Many of these needs are not offered to the children of broken homes which will influence their performance in science. The extent to which these needs are met during the formative years of children between birth and the age of six or seven in the extent to which they enter school well equipped or ready to deal with the social and emotional aspects of schooling.
Based on the observation above and in line with the assumption that economic and social future of many children in most localities is being undermined by cultural practices that promotes widespread divorce amongst couples and brought unnecessary hardship to the growing children.
It is pertinent at this juncture to point out in spite of all the needs expressed as to be met by the students most especially science students, this research also has intended to seek for how much science student is affected in academic achievement, either as a result of his home been stable or broken.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In our society, children are sometimes exposed at an early age to all sort of dangers arising from malnutrition, diseases and various temptation of surviving due to absence of one or both of their parents. Student’s life in broken homes is observed to be associated with emotional stress that can impair intellectual development, thereby giving way for such children to grow up without being trained properly.
However, absence of one or both parents deprives young children of the stable love, care, security and total support they have been accustomed to and tend to make children different in the eyes of the peer group. if children are asked where the missing parent is or why they have a new parent to replace the missing parents, they become embarrassed and ashamed. They may also feel guilty and unwanted by the society, such stressful situation leads to psychological, emotional and intellectual imbalance in growing children. These subsequently result to quitting from school or poor academic achievement of science student as science require critical thinking, relax mind and proper family support to be able to perform to expectation in the area. Hence it becomes necessary to investigate factors that causes broken homes with a view to finding solution to the problems for psychological well being of growing children in our society, and these lead us to look at the effect of broken homes on science students education particularly in Sokoto South local government.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are formulated to guide this study.
- Does the home have any significant effect on science student education?
- Is there any significant difference in the academic performances of science students from broken homes and those from stable homes?
- Does the socialization of the home have any significant effect on the academic performances of science students?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
- There is no significant effect on science students education in term of broken homes and stable homes.
- There is no significant differences in the academic performances of science students from broken homes and that of science students from stable home.
- There is no significant effect on the academic performances of sciences students in term of socialization of the home.
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this research work include the following.
To find out the causes of home breakage and the solution to it in sokoto south local government area of sokoto state.
To assess the impact or effect of broken homes on science students education.
To find out how absence of one or both parent influence science students academic performances in school.
To seek for solution on how to control widespread divorce among couples.
To suggest ways of minimizing unnecessary divorce
To find out whether there is significant differences in academic performances of students from broken home and those from stable home in science schools.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to carry out research on possible causes of broken home and its consequences on the educational prosperity of students of science in sokoto south local government of sokoto state. This is with a view to suggest ways of minimizing and overcoming the problem.
As known by all educators, the home play very significant role in child personality formation and socialization, broken homes are identified as one of the factor that undermined the socialization process at home, which consequently affect the performance of student. If the concern of education, science education in particular is to look after socialization process of the child as well as his intellectual development, then this research work would be of great importance to parents and educators that absence of one or both of the parent affect children educational carrier be it medicine, engineering, chemistry, physics and the likes, in the field of education and family life to come with solution of ensuring stability in the homes for the betterment of growing children and the society at large.
1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Though, the questions which prompted this study was found to be in existence in different part of the country, most especially in the northern part of the country, it is not possible for this research to cover all such areas. This is because the research/ researchers cannot obtain data from all places concerned due to lack of time and resources (both human and material resources).
As the title of the research reads, the research will be limited to only sokoto south local government area of sokoto state and it should be noted that the work may not represent some areas in the local government and not all people during the course of the research exercise will cooperate, hence the research is bound to experience limitation.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Children are totally dependent, they move from dependence towards independence throughout childhood, in order to survive and develop during this period of dependence, they need care, security, protection, stimulation and social contact. In most societies at most time in history children have most commonly nurtured and cared for within families. Stability of the home is therefore of greatest significance to child’s development. However, broken homes on the other hand are experienced to be stressful by children they feel sense of loss, even blame themselves, when home is not stable or broken down, their children are reported to be suspicious, timid, anxious, introverted and they may not be able to cope with live in the school. It is in view of these that this research aimed at investigating the following.
- The causes of broken homes.
- The effect of broken homes on academic performances of science students.
- The possible solution to broken homes.
2.1 CONCEPT OF HOME, SCIENCE STUDENTS AND EDUCATION
The concept of home is been defined in different ways.
According to the concise dictionary, a home is a place where one live or an institution for people needing professional care. Murdock (1984), define home to includes adults of both sex, at least two or more who maintain a socially approved sexual relationship, and one or more children own or adopted of the sexually cohabiting adults.
Also, Nwachil (1984), refers to the home as a primary social group and the smallest institution. Also according to Aremu (2011), a home is a place where every member of the family find solace. He added that a complete Home constitute the father, mother, children and other member included.
At this point a home can be seen as a conducive, convenient and adoring environment where members of the family relate with one another, showing love and affection to one another.
According to concise English Dictionary, Science is the study of knowledge of physical and natural world based on observation and experiment. Also according to Wikipedia, science is the systematic enterprise that build and organizes the knowledge in the form of testable explanation.
Students as defined by Concise English Dictionary are persons studying at university or college. Also Wikipedia describe students as a leaner who attend an educational institution. However, a school child under the age of eighteen is called pupil. For the sake of this research more emphasis shall be laid on School children rather than university or college students.
Wikipedia defines science students as a person whose study is based on organized knowledge in a testable form. However, considering the topic of this work it will like to look at secondary school students, science students to be precise by placing more emphasis on children.
There is unanimous agreement in respect of the age which childhood terminate. It is clear in our present society that many children seems to have gotten independence from their parent at a tender age.
According to Onimu (1990), placed the upper limit of childhood as 18 years. Also Akinlusi (2000), has seen the children to be any person who is from birth to twenty one (21) years, such a person is still under the protection and care of the parents.
Also according to Hauwa et –al (2005), child is a young person who heavily depends on an adult for care, love, protection, physical, emotional, mental and social support. She added that a child is only able to progress in the journey through life and consequently become independent person through the support and assistance of the parents.
For the purpose of this work, we will like to define the child as a young human being who cannot cater for his/herself but rely solely on the parents for his/her survival. The ease with which the child masters the survival skills, learns the basis of human behavior as well as formation of character and personality is determined by the quality and amount of parental support.
Education on the other hand, to educators is the process through which people’s abilities and talents are developed. Durkheim (1965), Define Education as the transmission of knowledge or value through formal means. This is through formal means of schooling and informal means by systematic socialization of the young by the adults in the family. Also, according to Fafunwa (1974), defines Education as the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or young adult develops their abilities, attitudes and other forms of behavior of positive value to the society in which he lives.
Also according to Sharma ( 2005), Education is the art or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge and habits through institution or study. Adeyemo (2010), perceive Education as the art or science of transmitting culture, norms, traditions, values and ethics of a society from one generation to it’s succeeding generation. To this end Education can be seen as act of giving intellectual or moral instruction to a child or group of learners for the betterment of their characters in the society.
2.2 IMPORTANCE OF THE HOME
The home of a child laid the desired social, moral, emotional, spiritual and intellectual foundations for the child, the family does a lot of things to influence the life of a child among which includes socialization of a child, child care and protection, emotional and social support.
2.2.1 SOCIALIZATION OF A CHILD
The family provide the basic and most important environment in which children learn the culture of the society in which they belong to. The family either consciously or unconsciously teaches children the main aspects of any culture, these are shared values, norms and language.
2.2.2. CHILD’S CARE AND PROTECTION
The family is the most effective in providing day –to – day care for its dependent members, children and the likes. Caring for children outside family is much more expensive and often less effective as the child will never feel safe and secure the way he feel in his home.
2.2.3 EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL SUPPORT
Families perform a very important role, they give a baby a nomenclature and initial position in the society. When one heard of an abandoned child the question we ask ourselves is whose child is this and where did he come from. The family gives the child an identity and a cause of belonging and a feeling of being valued. A child’s family is able to provide a positive feeling of worth that is fundamental to healthy emotional development, that meet the basic needs for love and affection, company and security. In broken homes, children are less likely to find support outside their homes.
2.3 NEEDS OF SCIENCE STUDENTS AS CHILDREN
Children are born with psychological, emotional and intellectual needs such as needs for love and security, the need for new experiences, the need for praise and recognition, the need for responsibility. Sian et – al (1980), as presented by Abdulganiyu (1997), presented four basic needs of the child based on the model of Pringle (1974) as follows.
2.3.1 THE NEED FOR LOVE AND SECURITY
From the very time a child is born the need for care and attention from parents or their substitute become manifest. The child who grows up with the feeling of being loved by everyone in the family, develop a healthy and secure personality. Abdulganiyu (1997), presented a report which observe that the loving relationship which children encounter in the formative years give them confidence and some sense of security that could be of use to them in their future social encounters. Therefore a science students who happen to come from such a home would feel secure in any environment he/she found him/herself anytime he thought of his home.
2.3.2 THE NEED FOR NEW EXPERIENCE
Every child needs new experiences, according to Hebb (1973), he observed that the degree to which people prefer a quite life or more excitement and novelty in their environment differ from individual to individual or situation in which one found his / herself.
Also Sian et – al (1980), asserted that some new experience could be regarded as a pre – requisite of mental development for children. Children learn better when they are given opportunity to interact actively with their experiment, children who were discouraged from their environment there by denied the active exploration of the world around them would always be apathetic, bored and irritated. There is need for new experience to be met, play and language should be introduced into children’s day – to –day activities. Therefore as science students there is need to spend a lot of time with them talking to them, answering questions and helping them to find solution to their own answers through participation. So the orientation one had determined to a large extent how well the need for new experience is met.
2.3.3 THE NEED FOR PRAISE AND RECOGNITION
In order to have confidence to go in life, every child wants assistance of others in his/her life such as parents, grandparents, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts and other members of their family to praise and recognize the efforts he/ she is making in a bid to cope with demands of day – to –day existence. The way the children perceive their parent’s attitude towards them, may to some extent determine the way they see themselves and their concept.
2.3.4 THE NEED FOR RESPONSIBILTY
Children as they grow need increasing degree of freedom if they are to grow into independent adults. They ought to experience the consequences of their actions, unless they are dangerous to their well being. If they do not they have, they have no way of judging the correctness of their behavior. One can therefore conclude that the extent to which a child’s need for responsibility is met, is the extent to which he/ she is able to see him/herself as a useful and accepted member of the community to which he/she belongs.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the extent to which these needs are met depend on the type of home a child is born into, the socio – cultural, economic and political conditions of his/ her society.
2.4 THE ROLE OF HOME IN SCIENCE STUDENTS EDUCATION
Abdulganiyu (1997), observed that the extent to which child’s basic needs are met during the formative years of children, between the age six or seven is the extent to which they enter school well equipped or ready to deal with social and emotional aspect of schooling .
Shote (1997), also observed some factors within the student’s home that affect their performances in school variable such as socio – economic status, family size, birth order, parental attitude, child rearing practices, parental absence or presence have been found to affect the social and intellectual learning experiences of students in schools. Also Lorretta (1995), revealed that a child becomes educated not only by attending schools but by total experience in life which include experiences with family members through which is bound to learn by imitation and direct experiences.
The preliminary training and educational background of the children being at home , right from the time the child is born, he begin to interact with the mother, later with the father and the siblings. Wilkins (1976), also stressed that parents have the responsibilities of guiding and directing their children towards living a useful life by inculcating in them such highly priced values such as discipline, integrity and sense of duty of all the major social institution, the family has been considered as the initial and most influencing agent on the lives of children.
In conclusion, science students will only perform to expectation if they are fully equipped and fully supported by their respective homes.
2.5 BROKEN HOMES
Haven define the concept of home, Aremu (2011), perceived broken home as the integral part of the setting that is father and mother whereby if any of the integral part is not available, the home is then said to be broken which in one way or the other affect members of the home negatively.
Marriage unionism is not always a stable one, couples usually indulge in quarrels, fighting etc which consequently result into separation or termination of the marriage union, it is in view of this that Hauwa et – al (2005), observed that homes are usually broken up by death and increasingly by divorce, abandonment or involuntary separation as result job demand or other obligations.
Hauwa, however outlined factors that causes divorce among couples to varies, depending on the locality, culture and nature of the home. In most localities in sokoto state, the major causes of divorce among couples include forced marriages, child marriage (early marriage), ignorance of the right of spouses under shari’ah, instigation from parents and friends, failure to uphold marital obligations, lack of proper upbringing from childhood, difficulty of earning a living (economic hardship) and many more to mentioned but few.
2.6 INFLUENCE OF BROKEN HOME ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIVEMENT OF SCIENCE STUDENTS
The effects of broken homes on students depend on many factors, the most important of which are the causes of the broken homes when it occurs, and it is either temporary or permanent. When there is a break in the home as result of death and children realize that, the parent will never return, mourn the loss and transfer their affection to the remaining parent, hoping in this way to regain the security they formally had. By so doing one will found the students forgotten that they had other things to attend to like their academics and as a science student there is need for determination and commitment to the classroom activities and laboratory practices, but a child who happen to have a parent pre occupied with grief and practical problems of a broken homes give rise to children that feel rebuffed and unwanted.
This will however, result to resentment that can seriously cause damage or affect the child’s intellectual potentialities required from him/her as science student and that could deter his/her academic achievement in classroom and elsewhere. However, Hauwa et – al (2005), observed that the loss of the mother in early life is more damaging to a child than loss of father. She stated the reason for this to be that the care of young children must under the circumstances be turned over to relatives or paid housekeepers whose child training techniques may differ from those used by mothers and who rarely can give children the attention and affection they formally received from their mothers.
Therefore, a science students brought up under this condition may likely fall victim of missing the love and care of the mother which thereafter affect him/her in the later life of the science students achievement when it come to classroom or practical aspect of science.
Nevertheless, Hauwa et –al (2005), observed that as children grow older, loss of the father is often more serious than loss of mother, especially for boys. The mother may have to go work and with the double burden of home making and outside work, the mother may lack the time and energy to give children the care they need, consequently they feel neglected and become resentful, if mother are unable to provide the recreational opportunities and status symbols children’s peers have, this will add to their resentment. Science students in this case may lack a lot of fatherly advise on their carrier choice in science as a science student compare to those from a stable home or whose father is alive. For older boys, loss of the father means that they have no source of identification as their friends have, and they resent petticoat rule in the home as they do in school.
A home broken by death in such a way that both parent were loss at the same time, the effect are doubly serious beside having to make the radical changes in the pattern of their lives, children will have to adjust to the care of another person, often a person unknown to them, and by so doing the students will have to face so many challenges in his/her academic achievement.
Balikisu et – al (2005) perceived a home to be broken by divorce, such homes can be more damaging to students. There are two reasons with which she supported her point, the period of adjustment to the divorce is longer and more difficult for children than the period of adjustment to death of a parent, as children pass through series of adjustment like denial of divorce, anger which strikes out at those involved in the situation, bargaining in an attempt to bring the parent back together and depression all which must have go along way in deterring the academic achievement of the student who need time to make good use of his brain to think logically as a science students.
Secondly, broken homes caused by divorce are serious because they tend to make children different in the eyes of the peer group. When enquiry is made about the missing parent is or why they have another to replace the missing parent, they become embarrassed and ashamed. Furthermore, they may feel guilty if they enjoy the time they spend with the missing parent or if they prefer living with the missing parent to living with the parent who is taking care of them.
However, Hurlock (1981), reported temporary absence could be damaging to children than permanent break, he added that this mostly occur when the mother or the father is always around for a relatively short time, the absence could be for vacation, military operation and so on that take him away from the home, it could be hospitalization in the case of the mother, such temporary break for a child in science could be stressful though for both parents and their children and could lead to dettoriation in family relationship. Therefore failure of the family to adjust may hinder the academic performances of a sciences students from such a family background, and a child from a family that happen to be otherwise could also have challenges in his/her academic performances in science subjects, that is to show that at this juncture his problem could be social or emotional instability.
From the analysis, it is evident that the home plays a significant role in the education of students, going in the direction of this work science students, by looking at their basic needs as children under the care of their immediate environment and the parent. Meeting the four basic needs will enable the children to grow up psychologically, emotionally and intellectually balanced. The extent to which they enter school better equipped to deal with the socio – emotional aspect of schooling.
Academic achievement was analyzed to be positively related to homes that are warm, accepting, understanding and autonomy granting parent – child relationship, as it is been foster by various roles each of these could play.
Broken homes was also identified as detrimental to overall development of the child. Hence here seems to be a strong needs to find out possible causes of broken homes, it’s effect on academic performances of science students education. This will provide possible suggestions on how to tackle the situation.
This research work is to study the effects of broken homes on science education students in sokoto south local government. It is primarily aimed at investigating the possible causes of high rate of divorce among couples as it affects achievement in science in sokoto south local government and to assess the various ways broken homes influence students academic performances in schools. This in view to recommend measures of controlling couples from unnecessary divorce for students better performance in science at schools.
This chapter consists headings which includes research design, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This research study is a descriptive type, it is design to find the effect of broken homes on science students education in sokoto south local government of sokoto state. The researcher(s) will sort the opinion of respondents with the aid of questionnaires which are based on certain variables such as ages, marital status, occupation and number of children.
Due to limitation in resources (time and money) the researcher(s) cannot visit all the schools and household in sokoto south local government and therefore will concentrate on some sample parts.
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population of this study include all of the married people, parents, teachers and school students of sokoto south local government area of sokoto state.
The researcher(s) hope to visit if not all but most of the science secondary schools in sokoto south local government and out of the school visited only ten will be selected. The selection of the school will be based on spatial location, size of the classes, type and nature of the school system i.e either day or boarding, mixed sexes or single etc.
The schools to be selected will represent the whole science secondary schools in sokoto south local government area of sokoto state.
TABLE 1: Some Selected Science Secondary Schools In Sokoto South Local Government.
|1.||Nagarta College Sokoto|
|2.||Sheik Abubakar Gummi Memorial Secondary School|
|3.||Sokoto Teachers College Sokoto|
|4.||Giginya Memorial College Sokoto|
|5.||Sultan Bello Secondary School Sokoto|
|6.||Sultan Atiku Secondary School Sokoto|
|7.||A. A Raji Special School Sokoto|
|8.||Sultan Abubakar College Sokoto|
|9.||Nana Girls Secondary School Sokoto|
|10.||Hafsat Ahmadu Bello Model Arabic Secondary School Sokoto|
SOURCE: Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technical Education Sokoto State.
The above schools were under the direct supervision of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technical Education respectively. This is to ensure that the school selected are subjected to the same administrative conditions. Moreover, a deliberate attempt will be made to ensure an equal treatment of these selected schools as much as possible.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES.
A sample is a listed number of elements selected from a population as a representation of the population (Ndagi 1984). The sample of this study comprised of ten (10) science secondary schools selected randomly and 10 houses which were randomly selected as well. A total of 100 respondents, ten from each schools and houses were selected .
These sample chosen will therefore be representative for the whole population, inference will be drawn from them.
The major research instrument adopted in the study was survey based on the research question drawn by the research.
In the process of data collection, the research(s) used structured questions in form of a questionnaire whereby respondents choose/tick on the available options provided and thereafter express their opinions based on options provided in the questions. The questionnaires were designed in such away that items of information required from respondent were minimal to enable the respondent to promptly fill and return them. Also a verbal interview was conducted with the illiterate parent and school student that could not understand the questions very well.
The questionnaires are of two set namely
- Questionnaire for parents and teachers
- Questionnaire for student
3.5.1 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT.
The instrument adopted for this research was presented to the experts in science and vocational education department, Faculty of Education and Extension services of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (UDUS) who cross checked the questions there in and approved them as good enough to solicit information needed for the study.
3.5.2 RELIABILITY OF INSTUMENT
The instrument adopted for this research was found reliable as it has been cross checked by expert and confirmed to be worthy enough to seek for information. The researchers also adopted a test and re – test, and 0.67 reliability index was obtained.
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
In the process of data collection, the researcher(s) in the survey, limit the use of questionnaire to the school visited and the interview aspects to the questioned are structured as the respondents only have to select / tick or the one he/she feels is his /her perception. The researcher(s), with the help of letters of introduction from the ministry of science and technical education and ministry of education hope to gain access to the promotional examination results of the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 academic session respectively. The data (promotional Examinations) results will be used by the researchers to know the academic performances of the students. This will go a long way in helping the researchers to identify weather there is significant difference of academic performance between students coming from a broken home and those coming from a stable home.
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
Since the researchers wishes to adopt two different set of data, the analysis also has to be in two phases.
The first method to be adopted in this research will be based on statistical table by distributing the respondents according to their answers as will be for survey.
The second phase of the analysis, which is going to be the result of the promotional Examination will be subjected to the statistical treatment (t- test) to find out the significant differences in academic performances between the students coming from a broken home and those coming from stable home.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter is presentation of data, information collected from the questionnaire issued to the respondent; it will be presented and analyzed through frequency table and simple percentages.
However, a total of two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students of ten selected secondary schools in sokoto south as well as teachers, community people and students of tertiary institution in the community. The researchers distributed the questionnaires at ten per schools and also ten per localities in the sokoto south local government. The researchers reached the schools and areas and collected the filled questionnaires from the respondents.
Moreover, for the purpose of this research the analysis aimed at by the researchers, that is analysis base on the statistical table and analysis of the promotional will no longer be adopted, rather analysis through simple frequency table and simple percentage as well as test for hypothesis through the significance differences in academic performance of the students from broken and stable home. This was a result of inability of the researchers to the promotion result examination for the fact that the number of student living with their parent supersede the one from single home.
4.1 DATA PRENTATION
Presentation and analysis of questionnaires will be presented in two parts. Part A; will be the simple table and simple percentage for the response to the questionnaires of students and community / teachers. While part B will be test for the hypothesis through the use of t- test.
PART A. (STUDENTS QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS)
Q1. Does the home play any significant role in child upbringing? Yes/No
TABLE II: Table showing students responses
Source: Field Survey 2011.
From the table above 87% responded yes to whether the home play significant role in child upbringing and 13% responded no and this can lead to tentative conclusion that the home play vital role in child upbringing as analyzed above.
Q2. To what extent does good home influence socialization process a child?
TABLE III: Table showing students responses
|To a greater extent||77||77%|
Source: Field Survey 2011.
The table above show how much the home influence the socialization process of a child, and the result reads that the child is been influenced with 77% and that shows the child is been influenced to a greater extent, others reads 4%, 20% and 3% for average, less extent and those who did not decide accordingly.
Q3. What did you think could cause a broken home?
TABLE IV: Table showing students responses
|Lack of understanding||50||50%|
|Lack of caring||29||29.9%|
Source: Field Survey 2011.
The table above indicate that broken home could be caused by lack of understanding been the one with 51.5% as the analysis indicated. However, broken home could be caused by other factors like lack of caring and insecurity respectively.
Q4. Does broken home have any effect on science students achievements?
TABLE V: Table showing students responses
Source: Field Survey
From the analysis of table v above, the result shows that broken home have effect on science students achievement, as indicated with the percentage 69.9% of the respondent responded yes while 30.1% responded No.
Q5. How does broken home affect science students achievements?
TABLE VI: Table showing students responses
Source: Field Survey 2011.
It is clear from the table above as responded by the students shows that why some feel broken home have no effect on the achievement of science students, some feel it encourage the students feel it encourage the students, it is pertinent at this juncture to deduce that the broken home affect science students achievement as it is been scored 57%.
Q6. Is there any significant difference between the academic performances of students from broken homes and those from unbroken homes.
TABLE: VII: Table showing students responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
There is a significant differences between the academic performances of students from broken homes and those from unbroken homes as the table shows those that responded yes to have 63% while those that responded No have 37%. Hence from the analysis it can be tentatively reached that there is significant difference between the academic performances of students broken homes and those from unbroken homes.
Q7. Does the socialization process at home influence the prosperity of science students in the academic achievement?
TABLE VIII: Table showing students responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
From the table shown above 80% of all the respondent, responded that the socialization influence the prosperity of science students in academic achievement, as it was deduced that those that responded yes constituted the majority.
Q8. How does socialization process at home influence the academic achievement of students?
TABLE IX: Table showing students responses
|Prosper in their academic||52||52%|
|Loose interest in school||48||48%|
Source: Field Survey 2011
As shown from the analysis, it is obvious that socialization process at home influence the academic achievement of students by making them to prosper in their academic as the number of respondents to that effect scored 52%, while those who disputed the fact scored 32%, it is therefore clear at this juncture that socialization process at home make students to prosper in their academic.
Q9. In your own interest are you from a broken home?
TABLE X: Table showing students responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
From table x 72.7% of the respondents were from a stable home as they live together with their parent and 27.3% came from a broken home as illustrated above.
Q10 (a) If together how do you feel?
TABLE XI: Table showing students responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
(b) If broken how do feel?
TABLE XII: Table showing students responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
The tables above shows how the students feel living with their parent or coming from a broken home. From table XI above it is clear that 97.3% feel good living with their parent while 2.7% despite the fact that they live with their parent still feel bad.
However, the second table shows that 48.1% feel good despite the fact that they don’t live with their parents and also 51.9% feel bad to absence of one or both parents in the home.
TEACHER/COMMUNITY QUESTIONNAIRE ANLYSIS
Q1. What do you think causes the high rate of divorce in sokoto south local government?
TABLE XIII: Table showing teachers/community responses
|Lack of understanding||80||81.6%|
Source: Field survey 2011
The respondents in their response to the cause of high rate of divorce as shown in the table above observed that high rate of divorce is caused by lack of understanding as it reads 81.6% and insecurity reads 18.7% and from this a partial conclusion can be drawn that lack of understanding lead to high rate of divorce in sokoto south local government.
Q2. What are the impact or effect of broken home on science students education?
TABLE XIV: Table showing teachers/community responses
|It deny them of achieving their dreams||57||58.2%|
|It makes them to stand to the challenges||41||41.8%|
Source: field survey 2011
The analysis shown on table xiv indicates that broken homes affect the science students by denying them of achieving their dreams as it appears from respondents to be 58.2%, though other responses claims it make them stand to the challenges with 41.8%. Hence broken home have impact on science students.
Q3. Does absence of one or both parent influence science students academic performances in school?
TABLE XV: Table showing teachers/community responses
|It has no effect on their academic performances||25||25.5%|
|It affect them in term of academic performances||73||74.5%|
Source: Field Survey 2011
From the analysis it is obvious that absence of one or both parent influence science students academic performances in school when we talk of percentage as displayed by table xv.
Q4. How do you think divorce can be control among couples?
TABLE XVI: Table showing teachers/community responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
It is pertinent to deduce from the analysis on the above table that divorce can be better control through understanding among couples with the number of respondents been 83.7% though other factor may be involve but mutual understanding supersede all.
Q5. What ways can be followed in minimizing divorce among couples?
TABLE XVII: Table showing teachers/community responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
The analysis from the table above shows that divorce can be minimized among couple through caring for one another and patience as they were responded to be ways of minimizing divorce by respondents in 10.2% and 14.3% respectively. Above all it can be deduced that understanding among couples is the best way to minimize divorce among couples.
Q6.Is there any significance difference academic performances of science students from broken home and those from stable homes?
TABLE XVIII: Table showing teachers/community responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
Q7. Does the home any vital role in child upbringing?
TABLE XIX: Table showing teachers/community responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
It can be clearly seen from the table above that the home play vital role in child upbringing in the sense the response that Yes or No were 88% and 12% respectively. Therefore it can be concluded that the home play vital role in child upbringing.
Q8. Is there any way the home influence the socialization of a child?
TABLE XX: Table showing teachers/community responses
Source: Field Survey 2011
From the analysis of the table above, it is shown that the home influence the socialization process of the child as in respond to whether it does or not the table shows 84% and 16% respectively. So it can be concluded that the home influence the socialization of the child.
Q9. If Yes to what extent?
TABLE XXI: Table showing teachers/community responses
|To a greater extent||77||91.7%|
Source: Field Survey 2011
Q10. If No why?
TABLE XXII: Table showing teachers/community responses
|No change in character||14||87.5%|
|Just like that||2||12.5%|
Source: Field Survey 2011.
From the tables above analysis shows that the extent to which the home influence the child is great that the score reads 91.7% while some feel the child is only influence to a less extent, also other respondents felt the child is not influenced at all as they could not notice change in character, so for this the child has neither been influence to a greater extent nor to a less extent.
However, it is clear to said that the child is influenced to a greater extent.
4.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA
This part as designed by the researcher(s) will be the analysis of the promotional examination result of students for the 2010/2011 academic session, but due to the in ability of the researcher(s) to have asses to the result in question, the research will present the data on a table showing the number of students from broken homes and stable homes respectively in all the schools visited.
TABLE XXII: Table showing number of students from broken home and unbroken homes.
|S/N||SCHOOLS||STABLE HOME||BROKEN HOME|
|1.||Nagarta College Sokoto||7||2|
|2.||Sheik Gummi Memorial Secondary School||6||4|
|3.||Sokoto Teachers Coolege||7||3|
|4.||Giginya Memorial College||8||2|
|5.||Sultan Bello Secondary School||5||5|
|6.||Sultan Atiku Secondary School||8||2|
|7.||A.A Raji Special School||9||1|
|8.||Sultan Abubakar College||10||0|
|9.||Nana Girls Secondary School||7||3|
|10.||Hafsat Ahmadu Bello Model Arabic School||5||5|
Source: Field Survey 2011
From the table above, the result of students from broken homes and stable home does not tally as the researchers anticipated, as no student is ready to be identified as a child from a broken home. It is in view of this that the researcher(s) decided to test for the hypotheses through the information filled in the questionnaires issued to the people in community/teachers and students which will be in turn subjected to statistical treatment (t-test).
4.2.1 TEST FOR HYPOTHSES
This research work at this juncture aimed at finding out whether the hypotheses stated out for this research are achieved or not. Hence the data will be base on the analysis. The table below show the test for hypotheses as stated for this research which include.
- There is no any significant effect on science students interm of broken homes.
- There is no any significant difference in the academic performances of science students from broken homes and those from stable homes.
- There is no any significant effect on academic performances of science students in term of socialization of the home.
TABLE XXV: Table showing t-test result and decisions
|HYPOTHESES||T- CALCULATED||T- TABULATED||LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANT||DECISION|
SOURCE: Research Data/ Mathematical and Statistical table.
4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
The table above shows the test for hypotheses stated for this research, it can be deduced from the result of the test that hypotheses stated for this research were rejected and accepted accordingly. Putting into consideration the rule governing t-test which states that when t-calculated < t-tabulated the values is accepted and when t-calculated > t-tabulated then result of the analysis hypothesis I which states that there is no any significant effect on science students in term of broken homes is here by rejected. Hence there is significant effect on science students in term of broken homes.
However, hypotheses II and III satisfied the criteria of acceptance, hence hypotheses II and III are accepted and remain as stated. In conclusion, from the result of the analysis, it was found that all the hypotheses remain valid and correct except for the hypothesis I which was rejected following the result of it’s survey and the result of it’s testing.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter is the conclusion part of the research work titled “ the effect of broken homes on science education students”. The research which have looked into the rate at which science students from broken homes and those from stable homes differ in their academic achievement.
The issue of broken home has sparked of a lot of debate as to what causes broken home, how it can be minimized and also who are those at disadvantage the parents (Fathers or Mothers) or the children. Despite the facts that broken homes is everywhere, but it is more common in the northern part of the country where a lot of mothers have left their matrimonial homes as a result of one problem or the other and in the course of doing that their children is being taken care of by a new mother or none at the end of the day.
It is in view of these that this research looked in to the causes of broken homes, the effect of broken homes on the academic performances of science students and the possible solutions to broken homes in Sokoto south local government.
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The present empirical survey has thrown some light on the issue of broken homes versus science students education, the relationship between school and the home in term of students progress in learning. How much the home affect the students with regard to whether broken or stable homes. The research work was also able to find out there are less number of broken marriages in the area of study as the research include 36% married people, 13% of respondent were not living together and 50% are still single.
However, the science students from this area were not seriously affected especially in areas of their educations, love and affection as proved by the adopted instrument. It has also been reached that broken home is been caused by lack of understanding among couples as it was clearly indicated by the table XIII, were the percentage at which broken home occur happen to be 81.6%, though broken home can be caused by other factors too, but the research have shown that most of the broken homes in the Sokoto south local government are resulted from lack of understanding among couples.
It has also been observed that the wide speed of divorce among the people of community have impact on the science students in the area as presented in table XIV.
Moreover, broken homes is said to have effect on science students achievement in Sokoto south local government as this is in line with the analysis of table V which present 69.9% Yes from respondent in response to whether broken home have any effect on science student achievement and 30.1% responded No.
Finally, the result of t-test showed that in fact there is significant effect on science students in term of broken home as the result of the test proved the hypothesis to be wrong.
However, the two other hypothesis were tested using t-test and were found to be worthy and valid as the result of the tests proved them to be correct in the sense that they remain as they were stated
Base on the survey carried out, the result of the analysis and summary, it can be concluded that. On the whole there is no significant different in academic performances of science students from broken homes and those from stable homes. If opportune to be placed under same condition, home background as well shown love and affection by their parents (Fathers and Mothers ) they can perform well if not even better than those from a stable home.
The stated hypotheses for this research had been proved to be correct by the result of the survey and the result of it’s testing except for hypothesis I which was proved otherwise.
On the bases of the result obtained in the research and the literature reviewed in the work, the following are recommended.
- The home play vital role in child up bringing so parents should endeavour to stay in their matrimonial home to ensure good welfare of their children
- Couples should do everything possible to understand one another and also show love and caring to their counterparts.
- Science students regardless of their background can do better in school, so children should be encourage right from their homes as it goes along way in helping them achieve in school.
- Science students from broken homes should be given educational carrier guidance.
- Parents should Endeavour to develop good relationship with their children even after separation.
- Spouse should lower their expectations towards their marriage partners.
- Friends and relatives should not interfere in their kins /friends matrimonial affair, and also early and forceful marriage should be avoided as the need for couples to know and love one another could before not over emphasized.
- Women should have good knowledge of house keeping either educated or not.
- Parents should try to always meet the needs of their children as it aid their learning abilities.
- Government should introduce programme that will foster harmony in matrimonial home and in the society.
5.4 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY
The following points may be put into consideration by anybody who wish to conduct research in this area that is “the effect of broken homes on science education students” in future.
- The researcher(s) may consider using the marks obtained by students in science subjects as this can be used for statistical analysis, for a more fairly accurate result.
- The researcher(s) should have more time enough to enable them collect the relevant data recommended above.
- Questionnaires should be used to seek information on the student’s background, school facilities and variables that are known to affect the academic achievement of science students.
- The researcher(s) should use a wider area for his research instead of a single local government as used for this research.
- The researcher(s) may consider using examination result of senior secondary certificate examination (S.S.C.E) as this will enable the researcher(s) to judge the students accordingly.
- The researcher(s) may also consider using population of students in higher institutions to see the number of science students from broken homes that further their studies and how they cope with the society as grown up children in the polytechnics, colleges of education and universities.
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This is a questionnaire prepared by students of the department of science and vocational education in the quest to carry out research on the Effect of broken homes on science Education Students, with emphasis on some selected secondary school in Sokoto local government.
It in view of this that we urge you to fill in the information there in as appropriate to the best of your ability as your response will be treated with confidence.
SECTION : A
TYPE OF HOME: Together Broken
SECTION : B
- Does the home play any significant role in child upbringing? Yes / No
- To what extent does the good home influence socialization process of a child? (a) To a greater extent (b) Less extent. Please specify……………………………………
- What do you think could cause a broken home?
(a) Lack of understanding (b) Insecurity (c) Lack of caring. If none please specify…………………………………………………………….
- Does broken home have any effect on science students achievements? Yes / No
- How does broken home affect science students achievement? (a) Encourage them (b) Discourage them. If none please specify………………………………..
- Is there any significant difference between the academic performances of students from broken homes and those from unbroken homes? Yes/ No
- Does the socialization process at home influence the prosperity of science students in the academic achievement? Yes/No
- How does the socialization process at home influence the academic achievement of student? (a) Prosper in their academic (b) Loose interest in school. If none please specify………………………………………………………………
- In your own interest are you from a broken home or you leave with your parent? Together/Broken
- (a) If together how do you feel? Good/Bad
(b) If broken how do you feel? Good/ Bad
QUESTIONNAIRE (COMMUNITY PEOPLE/TEACHERS)
This is a questionnaire prepared to enhance us as final year students to carry out research on the effect of broken homes on science education students in some selected secondary school in Sokoto south local government.
This questionnaire therefore aimed at seeking for your opinion, and we appeal to you to do justice to the questions there in as they will be treated confidentially.
MARITAL STATUS: SINGLE/DOUBLE/DIVORCE
- What do you think causes the high rate of divorce in sokoto south local government?
(a) Insecurity (b)Lack of understanding. If none please specify………………………………………..
- What are the impact or effect of broken homes on secondary school students?
(a) It deny them of achieving their dreams (b) It make them to stand to the challenges. If none please specify………………………………………………………………………………………………
- Does absence of one or both parent influence science students academic performances in school?
(a) It has no effects on their academic performances (b) It affect them in term of academic performance
- How do you think divorce can be control among couples?
(a) Understanding (b) Security (c) Caring
- What ways can be followed in minimizing divorce among couples?……………………………
- Is there any significance differences in academic performances of students from broken homes and those from stable home? Yes/No
- Does the home play any vital role in child up bringing? Yes/No
- Is there any way the home influence the socialization of a child? Yes/No
- If Yes to what extent?………………………………………………………………………………………………..
- If No. why? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
SURVEY OF LANGUAGE VARIATION A CASE STUDY OF RUNDAWA (GURUMADA) AND OTHERS FULANI SPEAKERS AROUND SURU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KEBBI STATE
SEPTEMBER, 2011 CERTIFICATION: This research work has been only supervised and approved as having met one of the requirements for the award of a Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in the Department of modern European Languages and Linguistics, Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
This research project is completely dedicated to my beloved parents, Late Malam Abubakar (Garba Baka), Hajiya Zainabu (Sharifiya), Malama Halima, Malama Hajara and also to my brothers and sisters.
In the name of Allah, the Beneficient, the Merciful. Thanks be to almighty Allah who made it possible by giving me the wisdom, courage, zeal, health and ability to complete this work and degree programme in this great institution and particularly this department. I will like to acknowledge my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my project supervisor, Dr. Ibrahim Awwal for his tolerance, patience and encouragement, which made strong and encouraged to reach the level of education I have attained today to . May Allah the almighty bless him abundantly and protect to him against all evls . His suggestions and useful criticisms throughout the writing of this project have been of great help to me. Also i need to express my gratefulness to my brothers, sisters and friends who have contributed to the success of this research project. They are Barrister Amina Ka’oje, Malam Hamza Suru, Nasiru Abubakar Suru, Oga Compu, Oga Nasiru Ibrahim, Rashida Jafaru, Bashiru Muhammad (Oga), Bashiru Shehu, Mansur Yusuf Kangiwa, Zubairu M.T. Marina, Muhallah Hadi, Abu Danchadi, Bsinu Abubakar Giro, Suleiman Abubakar Ajeje, Abdulmalik Aliyu, A. G. Suru, Aliyu Abubakar Gulashi, Rabi’u Sani Sale, Shamsudeen Sani D/Gari, Abubakar A Abakar, Kabiru Umar Suru, Bashar Sanusi, Suleman Abdulrahim, Abdulhamid Mustapha (Al-Chemist), Salihu Saheed (Iron body), Shamsu Hashimu and Muhammad Abdullah Suru. May Allah reward you for the contribution you rendered.
1.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter is an introduction to the research. Chapter two is the review of other works that are related to this. Chapter three is the methodology. Chapter four consists of tables with some vocabularies of Gurumadanci dialect and other Fulfude dialects spoken in Dankin-Gari. 1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF SURU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA The headquarters of Suru Local Government Area is located in Dakin-Gari. Suru Local Government Area it was one of the twenty one (21) local government areas in Kebbi State. Suru Local Government Area was formed from part of Bunza Local Government in 1989. 1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF SURU LGA Suru Local Government Area is bordered by Bunza and Dandi Local Government Area in the northern part and Bagudo Local government area in the south. However, Suru Local Government shares boundary with Mayyama Local Government Area in the eastern part. Suru Local Government Area covers an area of 36,800 square kilometers. 1.3 DISTRICT AND POPULATION Suru Local Government Area is divided into six (6) districts and eleven (11) political wards. The districts include Dakin-Gari, Suru, Giro, Bakuwai, Aljannare and Barbarejo districts. Suru Local Government Area has an aggregate population of 148,474; with, 72,912 male and 75,562 are females. According to 2006 census. 1.4 PEOPLE AND CULTURE Suru Local Government Area consists of many people of different tribes and culture. People such as Hausawa, Fulani, Zabarmawa and Rundawa in Dakin-Gari, make up the population in Suru Local Government Area. Other minority groups include the Yoruba and Igbos, who migrated from places such as Oyo, Osun, Lagos and Ibadan of the present day southern Nigeria. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY In fact, the researcher tooka lot of time in order to give details of the little he was able to gather about the history of the (Rundawa Gurumada and Fulani in Dakin-Gari town). This research has been able to discuss the genetic relationships that exist between the two different dialects of fulani. The research findings has been made it clear the linguistic relationship between the Gurumadanci and other Fulfulde dialects in Dakin-Gari town. The researcher wants to serve as one of the sources of information to future researches on the area. 1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS In carrying out a socio-linguistic research, it is important to know the language variation. This research covers only two dialects viz: Gurumadanci and other Fulfude dialects in order to find their differences and their similarities. This research is intended to cover the entire Dakin Gari town, but due to time allocated for the research and cost of materials, the research resorted to the use of sample population. The areas that are selected in the town, such as: Sabon Birni, Bundu-bago,, Shiyar Haɓe, Sabon gari and also Runto. The obstacles of this research for them to accept their name as a Guru-madan, because most of them regard the word of Gurumadan Fulani like insulting word, but some few number of them, such as traditional restlers are used to called themselves as Gurumdada 1.7 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In a multi-ethnic society, especially in Africa, Language plays a vital role in various groups of human activities such as politics, religion, commerce or social interactions. Language in this case becomes the most important co-existence factors among the various ethnic groups. The aim of this research therefore, is to look at the differences and similarities between Rundawa (Gurumadanci) and other Fulfude dialects in Dakin-gari in social context.
2.0 LANGUAGE VARIATION Languages vary in many ways. One way of characterizing certain variation is to say that speakers of a particular Language sometimes speak different dialects of that Language. Although it has already been noted how difficult it is to define dialects although we find it useful to use the term in this work and even to extend to studies of regional variation and those of social variation. In this way it would be possible to talk about both regional dialects and social dialects of a Language. The mapping of dialects on a regional basis has had a long history in linguistics (see Pertzt 1980) Chiambes and Trudgill, 1998), and 1998, and Wakelin 1977). In fact, it is a well established part of the study of how Languages change overtime, i.e. of dictionary or historical linguistics. Language change and dialect differentiation, should always be possible to relate any variation found within a Language to the factors of time and distance; e.g, the British and American varieties, Kanuri and Sakkulatanci or Fulfulde and Rundawa (Gurumada) variety or dialect of English are separated by over two counties of political indigenous and by the Atlantic ocean; Northern and cocking English are nearly 300 mutes and many centuries apart. Language variation, Language use varieties in many dimension. The major dimensions are the following: Regional: Dialect variation Social: Socio dialect or class dialect variation Functional: Register or functional style variation. The term ‘lect’ back-formulation from dialect is sometimes used to cover the notion of Language variant. Language users move around in the variety space define by these three dimensions and the territory in variety space which is covered by a single user is known as his ‘Idiolect’ Language variation; everyone speaks at least one Language, and probably most people in the world speak more than one, even Americans, most of whom speak only English, known as a dialect of English. Certainly no one talked exactly the same way at all times. You are to speak to your boss in the style (or vocabulary) that you would not use in talking to one who just jammed your car from behind. Types of Language Change Grammatical constructions change. A passage in the old English Lord’s Prayer in literal translation, ‘not lead thou us into temptation’, in sharp contrast to modern English ‘don’t lead us into temptation.’ There are three components that make up the basis for Language variation. In order to understand Language variation, it is very important to apply these three major components to establish a better grasp of working device in the study of Language. The first component to Language variation lies within the linguistic environment at childhood. When communication forms are traced as a child grows, the variations to their Language comes from their parents, their commonly and their own understanding of the communication forms that they are learning. The second component to language variation of syntactic parameters.The general theory as proposed by professor yang pennsyvania state university language department, is that in the study of language variation the parameters are what commonize different aspect of language.This concept expantds on the firt language variation component because the syntactic structure parameter take individual items, like grammar and the acquisition of language create an area of inspection from a child’s learning of a language. The third component in language variation is in the understanding that language variation itself will never be full completed. This means that due to myriad of factors that come in to play when studying one area’s languages, its dialects and variation of the core language there will never be one set of directives that will be able to remain the same when studying another are’s language. 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RUNDAWA ( GURUMADA) In the world, every group of people you see have their on claims and origin or history about who they are, where they come from. The Rundawa (Gurumada) people laid claim that, they are Kabbawa or Kyangawa who under the Hodi jan Kosai left Birnin Kebbi town after the defeat of Kabbawa by the Jihadist of 1804 that made people migrated to different places. Their first settlement was in Kyangakwai town, the present day Dandi Local Government Area. After some few years Kyangawa decided to proceed in search of meat through hunting where they settled in present day Dankingari. Most of them were hunters and farmers. According to this tradition, these people were in search of water to drink as a result discovered a well called Argida, it is now situated in the area called dying place (Marina) in Dakingari. The discovery of the well motivated Hodi and his group to settle around the area in the now Suru Local Government Area such as Dankingari, Suru, Bakuwai, Zakuwa, Kainike, Bakoshi, Kamkure, Tungar-rini and Talata, etc. In Dakin-gari one of the Rundawa (Gurumada) whose name is Mohammadu Sama –leda said after the settlement of Kabawa then a Fulani man who migrated with his family from Borgu land, his name Usmanu Ja’oje and lived cordially there with Kyangawa when Hausa people came into the settlement are lived under Hodi Jan kosai, and Fulani people who came lived under Usman Jeoje. As time went on, people are increased and lived togetheras one. After a long timeof lived Kyagawa learnt to speak Fula, could understand Fula Language very well, and by that there was a language shift,and to some,it was a case of Language assimilation. The name Guru-mada, was a name change from kengawa during their war with Fanawa people in Dandi local government, because Fanawa people did not understand fula Language during their fighting with Kyangawa people of Dakin Gari, when the commander of army from Dakin Gari shouted “Tara, gurumada” (which means shiled with your skin). The word ‘tara’ in Fula means covering shied; ‘guru’ skin and ‘mada’ your own”. Henceforth, the enemies at war then call them ( the people of Dakin-Gari) with the name ‘Guru-mada’.
2.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE OTHER FULANI IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The Fulani Usmanu Je’oje who was said to migrate from Borgu land in present day Chad Republic was on his way to the Southern part of the present Nigeria when he discovered the Arigidi well. Hajjiya Amo with age 82 year demonstrated that Jeoje discovered the well , when he was travelling in search of water during which the cow discovered the well. The cow took followed the lead and the road Jeoje decided to follow his cow that led him to discover the Argida well. Hajjiya Amo further explained that Je;oje settled there until later when the kyangawa people arrived.Later Je’oje left the kyangawa and proceeded on his journey and founded Ka’oje the present day Bagudo local government are. The proponent of this legend argued that the people from Kabbi who established Dakin-gari were not Muslims but it was later that they invited a renown scholar from Zagga,a settlement of about 9 km to Dakingari town. The scholar was name Bosu, he was invited to teach the Kyangawa people Islamic knowledge and served as Imam. He was a Fulani man by tribe. While interviewing Abubakar Bosu II, he explained that most of Fulani who were said to be amang the early indigenous were his descendants. Bosu contended that around 1823 the son of Imam Bosu was confirmed by the emir of Gwandu as the first ruler of Dakin-Gari town by name Boyi Dan Bosu.
2.3 THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN MULTI-LINGUAL SOCIETY Language is an indispensible element of mutual understanding in a society, being the systematic and conventional use to sounds, signs or written symbols for communication and self expression in a human society. Linguists, Sociologists and Shirks have made several definitions to the socio-linguistic situation of a multilingual community. This research project considers, among several works on language in society. Writely (1974), which discussed extensively, the conditions under which multilingual situations could be found, he states: “One might exceed to find high incidence of multilingualism under the following conditions: Where access to education is unlimited and protracted. Where the community is linguistically heterogeneous. Where the personal mobility is high. Where strong attempts are to encourage, to speak a particular language.” Fishman (1976:11) defines multi-lingualism as a situation where a single population makes use of two or more languages or varieties of the same language for internal communication. Fishman argued that the multilingual situation is such that individuals living in the community use various languages in various domains. The sociolinguistic situations of such community is such that not only do individuals make use of their respective ethnic languages, but also use other languages for inter-ethnic group communication. That is, in a community group where there are ethnic groups such as Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, etc. we will respect each group to posses an ethnic language with which we identify their respective ethnic groups.
2.3 LAGUAGE SHIFT Language shift been an area study among sociolinguists, including Joshua Fishman, in recent decades. Revising shift involves establishing the degree to which a particular language has been ‘dislocated’ in order to determine to determine the best to assist or revise the language. Ghil’ad Zuckermann proposes Revival Linguistics as a new linguistics as a new linguistic discipline and paradigm. Zuckermann’s term ‘Revival Linguistics’ is modelled upon ‘Contact Linguistics’ (< language contact). Revival linguistics inter alia explores the universal constraints and mechanisms involved in language reclamation, renewal and revitalisation. It draws perspicacious comparative insight from one revival attempt to another, thus acting as an epistemological bride between parallel discourses in various local attempts to revive sleeping tongues all over the globe.
Steps in reversing language shift, Joshua Fishman’s model for reviving threatened (or dead) language, or for making them sustainable, consist of an eight-stage process. Efforts should be concentrated on the earlier stages of restoration until they have been consolidated before proceeding to the later stage. The eight stage are as follows:
Acquisition of the language by adults, who in effect act as language apprentices (recommended where most of the remaining speakers of the language are elderly and socially isolated from other speakers of the language).
Create a socially integrated population of active speakers (or users) of the language (at this stage it is usually best to concentrate mainly on the spoken language rather than the written language). In localities where there are reasonable number of people habitually using the language, encourage the informal use of the language among people of all age groups and within families and bolsters its daily use through the establishment of local neighbourhood institution in which the language is encouraged, protected and (in certain context at least) used exclusively. In areas where oral competence in the language has been achieved in all age groups encourage literacy in the language but in a way that does not upon assistance from (or goodwill of) the state education system. Where the state permits it, and where numbers warrant, encourage the use of the language in compulsory state education. Where the above stages have been achieved and consolidated, encourage the use of the language in the work place (lower work sphere). Where the above stages have achieved and consolidated encourage the use of the language in local government services and mass media. Where the above stages have been achieved and consolidated encourage the use of language in their education, government etc.
3.0 METHODOLOGY This chapter is mainly concerned with the methods used in collecting the necessary data that was used in writing this project. As mentioned earlier, very little literature on these language are available and even those that are available are neither officially recognized nor collectively harmonized. The implication of this on this project is apparent, it compell us discussing the differences and similarities that exist between the Rundawa fula dialect (Gurumada) and other fula dialects in Dakin-gari town, Suru Local Government. The comparison was based on their linguistic relationship of some lexical items of the two dialects. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Researcher made a good use of the project of Nasiru Mu’azu D/Gari History Department UDUS about the Inter-group relationship in twenty centuries in Dakin-Gari town. It is important to mention here that, my grand mother Haj. Amo has been a very useful resource person to this research work . Haj. Amo is 68 years old, she is from the ruling class family in Dakin-Gari town, and has conveniently assisted the researcher as a resource person. Other distinguished resource person who gave their contributions through interviews include: Malam Abubakar Eggo, he is an Islamic Scholar also Senior brother to Sarkin Malammai Dakin-Gari District. He is from the family of other fula dialect (Gorgabe). He is a native speaker of Gorgabe fula dialect, he is popularly known as Malam Eggo. The researcher got some useful information used in making this project. Similarly, in effort to get data for this project. The researcher have had some discussions with some people among Rundawa fula dialect (Gurumada) such as Muahmmadu Samalada and Mamman Dan-Tauriya at Sabon-birni area in Dakin-gari town all are Hospital cleaners. The information got from them have been of great help to this research. The last person consulted was one of the recognized fula, Malam Bashiya, whowork as a driver. whose words have been used in this project. However, the researcher have also used experimental method, where he conducted an experiment on some native speakers from two different Rundawa fula dialect (Gurumada and other fula dialect in Dakin-gari) The researcher realized some differences and similarities, such as in pronunciation, and choice of vocabulary with a litte difference. In the aspect of similarities, they have well understanding of each other and most of the lexical items used are the same. The researcher is going to present this in chapter four. 3.2 SAMPLING The samples for this research were made in Dakin-gari from areas such as: Sabon-birni, Sabon-gari, Runto and Bundu-bago.
3.3 METHODOLOGY The section deals with the ways and means through which data are obtained and interpreted and the theoretical approach adopted for data analysis. For the sake of academic and practical purposes, the researcher intends to discuss how the data are obtained and interpreted in chapter four.
3.4 INSTRUMENT USED The data used for this analysis consist of lexical items obtained from the native speakers of each of the two dialects. The instrument used for the data collection is Swadesh word list which consists of two hundred words. The respondents who are native speakers of each dialects were asked the equivalents of these words which are phonetically transcribed for the purpose of this investigation. For the purpose of this research, phonetic transcriptions were reconstructed using reconstruction method. Thus, the similarities or otherwise are established based on the reconstructed items. In order to determine the degree of similarities or otherwise, researcher adopt the following procedures: There is the need to determine the ratio of similarity which is as it follows: Ratio= (Number of Similarities)/(Number of Lexical Items)=X/200=200 Where X = Number of similarities found in the dialect involved 200 = Total number of lexical items. Then, we need to determine the percentage of similarities which are as it follows: Percentage of similarities = (Ratio)n-1 x 100 Where (n) is the number of language dialects involved in the analysis. The time depth is obtained by using lexicostatistics which is a simple method that determines the number of cognitive/similarities and dissimilarities upon which the time depth formula would be applied. The time depth formula is a standard formula which is as it follows: t = (Log C)/(2 log r)×1000 Where t = is the time depth or the time of seperation of the language/dialects. 2Logc = is the logarithm of the ratio of cognites/similarities shared by the language/dialects :C Logr = is the percentage of cognates/similarities retained after a millennium of separation :r. The percentage of cognates/similarities retained by the languages/dialects after a millennium of separation is a constant. Lee (1953) and Swadesh (1955) in Kidda (1997) propose 85% and 83% respectively. In this analysis, we consider (1951) in Bashir (1999) which argues that ‘everyday segement of the vocabulary are replaced at a defined rate and words that have been maintained in related languages may be used for dating in much the same way as radioactive decay has been used for dating the age of the earth’. Thus, with these procedures, we determine the degree of similarities which are the cognates and dissimilarities among the two fula dialects with a view to classifying and determing the time of their separation or the time depth. In the calculation of the time depth, we used a calculator because it gives a more accurate calculation of the logarithm.
4.0 THE DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN RUNDAWA FULA DIALECT (GURMADA) AND OTHER FULA DIALECTS
It has become an established fact that Rundawa fula dialect and other fula dialects are not genetically related, because they have different origin historical origin.It is important to mention here that, it is this relationship that exist between these dialects that form the basis of this project work. It is equally important to say that the findings from this relationship are based on historical facts. However,in the similarities of these dialects (based on our previous discussions in the foregoing chapters) in terms of their geographical locations, and their linguistic relationship. However, going by the geographical location of these dialects and which form a greater part of their linguistic behaviour, one is very much likely to understand that, there is a very strong link linguistically existing between them. For instance, almost all the lexical items that are used are the same phonetically and even semantically, but in terms of phonology, there are little difference which non-native speakers can not realise at once. None of the native speakers of these two dialects can doubt this. But the name of Guru-mada which is popularly known among the people is not proved to the most accurate name accepted by the native speakers.Recently, very few native speakers called themselves Gurumada, such as ‘yan dambe’ (local boxers). 4.1 GEOGRAPHICALLY THE RUNDAWA AND OTHER FULANI ARE NOT SEPARATED According to Malam Abubakar Eggo (2011) ‘the real Fulfulde dialect simply became the dominant dialect and the Rundawa fula dialect (Guru-mada) was compelled to assimilate it. The result of this assimilation is inter-marriage between the two groups. However, one interesting thing about these two dialects is that they can understand each other with some minor differences. The minor differences are not serious for they do not hinder interactions nor temper with meanings. In fact, when two the native speakers interact (linguistically), a non-native speaker of the two can hardly notice any differences between them. Both of them accepted this fact during my interview and other discussions with them. The most important comparison in this regard is the linguistic relationship of the two dialects. It is important to note that the Rundawa dialect and other fula dialect in Dakin-gari have very strong linguistic ties between them. For instance, like English words, these two dialects can have their words taxonomy into: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverb, prepositions, adjectives and conjunctions. NOUNS S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss gorogal Gerogal Hen chille Bone konga Koigal Leg asitiya Lokotororu Hospital chobbal Chutal Tura kata Kata ‘Soap’ titiyol Bangalol ‘Road’ danejun Denejun ‘White’ li’o li’o ‘Soup’ yiri Yiri ‘Fod’
PRONOUNS S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss mihin Min I’’ an An ‘You’ onon On ‘you plural’ kambe Kanbe ‘They ‘ kamko Kanko ‘She/he’ menon Men ‘We’ kumen Komen ‘Ourselves’ moinon Moini ‘Who’ dume Dume ‘Which’ kwoinon Kwoi
VERB S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss daru Raru ‘To look’ waroi Waroi ‘Came’ jabu Jabu ‘Take’ hettina Hettina ‘Listen’ wussa Wurta ‘Go out’ Sodu Chodu ‘Buy’ yamu Yamu ‘Eat’ yardu ya’du ‘Travelling’ haure Khaure ‘Fight’ aikije Gollole ‘Work’
ADVERB S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss gareido waredo’en ‘Came here’ yautu tam tautu tom ‘Go there’ Jaago Jingo ‘Tomorrow’ Subana subaka ‘Morning’ jemma Jenma ‘Night’ keya Keya ‘Yesterday’ yaudol Yawol ‘Quickly’ bodungol woggol ‘Do nicely’ yaloma yanlol ‘In the evening’ yawulol yawulol ‘Early’
ADJECTIVE S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss chuka Suka ‘A small boy’ balejo Balejo ‘A black man’ bodejo Bodejo ‘A white man’ judgol Jutol ‘Long’ dammol Dammol ‘Short’ Petel Pamarel ‘Small’ seddekah Seddal ‘Small amount lechchal Lechchal ‘Cilender girl’ maudun Maudun ‘Big in quality’ butta Butta ‘Big in pat’
PREPOSITION S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss dove Dow ‘On’ lei Lei ‘Under’ der Der ‘Inside’ yaasi Yaasi ‘Outside’ chaka Chaka ‘Middle’ do’en do’en ‘Here’ To’en to’en ‘There’ Lai Lai ‘Near’
CONJUNCTION S/N Gurumada Fula Dialect Other Fula Dialect Gloss i I ‘And’ kuma Kum ‘Also’ iŋ Iŋ ‘If’
This chapter has intends to classifed two fula dialects into groups and has shown the degree of homogeneity in each group thus identifies and discusses the degrees of similarities among the dialects using Greenberg’s (1963) method of classification.mass comparison and the time depth formula as illustrated below: 4.3 ANALYSIS This section deals with the analysis of various degrees of similarities and dissimilarities within the dialects and among different couples of dialects with a view to observing the degree of homogeneity within each group and within couples of dialects. In addition to this, we intend to determine the time depths of the dialects i.e. the time of separations of the dialects with a view to finding the time when these dialects will be separate languages within the same family. Below is a table of 200 word list in pairs of the two dialects: Gloss Gurumada fula dialect Other fula dialect ‘All’’ [hu:] [fu:] ‘And’ [?i] [?i] ‘Animal’ [bisa:ʤi] [Visa:ʤi] ‘Ashes’ [Ka:ta] [Ka:ta] ‘Back’ [ɓa:wɔ] [ɓa:wɔ] ‘Bad’ [Kuwɔ:ɗa] [Kɔwɔ:ɗa] ‘Blood’ [Či:ča:ŋ] [Či:ča:ŋ] ‘Belly’ [re:du] [re:du] ‘Big’ [mauɗuŋ] [mauɗuŋ] ‘Bird’ [t∫ɔlel] [t∫ɔlel] ‘Bite’ [jatu] [jatu] ‘Black’ [ɓaleʤuŋ] [ɓauleʤuŋ] ‘Blow’ [ɸu:ɸɔL] [pu: ɸɔl] ‘Burn’ [bulɔl] [wulɔl] ‘Child’ [ɓiŋgel] [ɓiŋgel] ‘Cold’ [ɸewɔl] [pe:wɔl] ‘Come’ [wurɔi] [wurɔi] ‘Count’ [li:sa] [li:su] ‘Cut’ [hi:sa] [hi:su] ‘Day’ [hande] [haŋde] ‘Die’ [ma:yeide] [ma:jɔl] ‘Dig’ [basɔl] [wasɔl] ‘Dirty’ [tu:di] [tu:di] ‘Dog’ [rawa:du] [kutu:ru] ‘Drink’ [jarɔl] [jarɔl] ‘Dry’ [jɔrɔl] [jɔrɔl] ‘Dust’ [Ќwu:rahal] [Ќwu:rahal] ‘Ear’ [nɔuru:] [nɔuru:] ‘Ears’ [nɔppi] [nɔppi] ‘Earth’ [laidi] [laidi] ‘Eat’ [ja:mu] [ja:mu] ‘Eggs’ [ɓɔt∫t∫ɔɗe] [ɓɔt∫t∫ɔ:ɗe] ‘Eye’ [hi:ter:] [hi:ter:] ‘Eyes’’ [gite:] [gite:] ‘Fall’ [ja:nɔl] [ja:nɔl] ‘Far’ [tu:wɔɗɗi] [tu:wɔɗɗi] ‘Fat’ [nebban [nebbaŋ] ‘Father’ [ba:ba:] [ba:ba:] ‘Daddy’ [ba:bi:ra:wɔ:] [ba:bi:ra:wɔ:] ‘Fear’ [kulɔl] [kulлl] ‘Few’ [seɗɗa] [seɗɗa] ‘Fight’ [haure] [haure] ‘Fire’ [hi:te:] [hi:te:] ‘Fish’ [liɗɗi] [liɗɗi] ‘Five’ [ʤɔji:] [ʤɔji:] ‘Hen’ [gɔrgal] [gergal] ‘Head’ [hɔ:re] [hɔ:re] ‘Finger’ [ɸede:li] [pede:li] ‘Fingers’ [ɸeɗeŋgɔl] [peɗeŋgɔl] ‘Before’ [na:ne] [na:ne] ‘East’ [lettuga] [lettugal] ‘South’ [hɔ:rehuɗɔ] [hɔ:rehuɗɔ] ‘North’ [suɓɓirde] [suɓɓire] ‘West’ [gɔrɔgal] [gɔrgal] ‘Sand’ [laidi] [leidi] ‘Way’’ [la:wɔl] [la:wɔl] Farm’ [gesa:] [gesa] ‘Sow’ [a:wɔl] [awure] ‘Grass’ [huɗɔ:] [huɗɔ:] ‘Fura’ [t∫ɔbbal] [t∫u:tal] ‘Activities’ [aiki:ʤe] [gɔllal] ‘Girl’ [ʤiwɔ:] [ʤiwɔ:] ‘Girls’ [ʤu:ɓe:] [ʤu:ɓe:] ‘Boy’ [suka:] [suka:] ‘Boys’ [suka:ɓe] [suka:ɓa] ‘Man’ [taga:ɗɔ] [taga:ɗɔ] ‘men’ [taga:ɓe] [taga:ɓe] ‘Maize’ [masara:ri] [tɔkɔli:ri] ‘’Day’ [jala:de] [ʤala:de] Cloth’ [kɔltal] [kɔltal] ‘Travelling’ [ja:du] [ʤahaŋgal] ‘River’ [gɔlɔ:re] [gɔlɔ:re] ‘Lake’ [we:nu] [we:nu] ‘Swamp’ [ma:wɔ] [ma:wɔ] ‘Cows’ [ŋa’i] [ŋa’i] ‘Hons’ [gala:ɗi] [gala:ɗe] Soup’ [li’ɔ:] [li’ɔ] ‘Snake’ [ɓɔggɔl] [bɔddi] ‘Mirrow’ [da:nɔlgal] [da:nɔrgal] ‘Scare’ [dullata] [rellata] ‘Rain’ [ijɔnde] [jɔŋde] ‘Cloud’ [mɔtše] [matše] ‘House’ [t∫u:ɗi] [wurɔ] ‘Stone’ [haire:] [haire:] ‘Ship’ [bali] [bali] ‘Goat’ [be’a] [be’a] ‘Goats’ [be’i] [be’i] ‘Sickness’ [ўawu] [ʤɔnte] ‘Well’ [ʤamu] [ʤamo] Scorpion’ [jaire] [jaire] ‘Female’ [rɔuɓe:] [rɔɓe:] ‘Male’ [wɔuɓe:] [wɔuɓe:] ‘Madman’ [kagga:ɗɔ] [kaŋga:ɗɔ] ‘Study’ [ʤande] [ʤande] ‘Book’ [dautare:] [dautare:] ‘Bush’ [ladde] [ladde] ‘Town’ [gari] [si:re] ‘Money [t∫e:de] [∫e:de] ‘Got’ [keᵷal [heᵷal] ‘White’ [daneʤun] [danedʤun] ‘Fly’ [umma] [umma] ‘Four’ [najii] [naji] ‘Give’ [hɔkkaŋ] [hɔkkaŋ] ‘Good’ [bɔ:gɔl] [bɔ: ɗuŋ] ‘Grass’ [huɗɔ] [huɗɔ] ‘Hair’ [ga:sa] [ga:sa] ‘Hand’ [ʤuŋgɔ] [ʤuŋgɔ] ‘He’ [kankɔ] [kaŋkɔ] ‘Heard’ [ɓerde] [ɓerde] ‘Heavy’ [teddɔl] [teddɔl] ‘Here’ [ɗɔ:en] [ɗɔ:en] ‘Hold’ [ʤɔga] [ʤɔga] ‘How’ [nɔinɔŋ] [nɔinɔŋ] ‘I’ [mi:him] [mi:him] ‘in’ [der] [der] ‘Kill’ [ba:re] [ba:re] ‘Know’ [?aŋdɔl] [?aŋdɔl] ‘Laugh’ [ʤaleɗi] [ʤalol] ‘Leaf’ [ha:kɔ] [ha:kɔ] Left side’ [ɸarnanɔ] [ɸarnanɔ] ‘Leg’ [kɔŋgal] [kɔigal] ‘Lie’ [ɸeure] [peure] Liver’ [ɓerde] [ɓerde] ‘Long’ [ʤuggal] [ʤuggɔl ‘Man’ [taga:ɗɔ] [niɗɗɔ] Many’ [kuɗuɗi] kɔɗu:ɗi] ‘Meat’ [te:wu] [kusel] Mother’ [iŋna:] [ma:mira:wɔ] ‘Mouth’ [kuŋdukɔ] [huŋdukɔ] ‘Name’ [inde] [iŋde] ‘Young goat’ [ɓɔta] [ʤaŋka:re] ‘Small wall’ [ɓulel] [Dakkure:ru] ‘Arrow’ [kural] [biru:wal] ‘Spear’ [ga:wal] [ga:wal] ‘Younger’ [hiti:re] [pa:jɔ] ‘Youth’ [kiti:ɓe] [paiɗeɓe] ‘Sword’ [takɔ:bijɔl] [kaffahi] ‘Camel’ [gelɔba] [jɔga:] ‘Reminal milk’ [hɔra:nɔl-kɔsan] [siɓɓide] ‘Bird’ [t∫ɔle] [pɔle] ‘Morning rainfall’ [jɔ:desubana] [jafalfalde] ‘Axes’ [ʤambere] [ja:mbere] ‘Silchle’ [lauʤehi] [tura:wu] ‘Properties’ [paule] [are] ‘Morning’ [subana] [subaka] ‘What is going on’ [get∫t∫a] [haba:ru] ‘Hospital’ [asbitija:] [lɔkɔtɔrɔ:ru ‘Wife’ [dekira:wɔ] [ʤɔsu:du] ‘S’hit’ [t∫ille:] [bɔnne] ‘I look for him’ [mida:ri:mɔ] [mira:ri:mo] ‘I am going’ [midilli] [modilli] ‘Marriage’ [kɔ:gal] [kɔ:gal] Groundnut’ [biri:ʤi] [biri:ʤi] ‘Groundnut oil’ [nebban-biri:ʤi] [nebban-biri:ʤi] ‘Bag’ [basu:] [basu:] Amarontus’ [pɔlle:] [pɔlle:] ‘Door’ [gambuwal su:du] [gambuwal su:du] ‘Pap’ [bɔiri] [bɔiri] ‘Turban’ ‘[gu:hɔl] [gu:hɔl] ‘Amt’ [ju:jun] [ju:jun] ‘Air’ [hendu:] [hendu:] Knife’ [laɓi:] [laɓi:] ‘Rumbus’ [be:bal] [be:bal] ‘Millet’ [gauri] [gauri] ‘Beggar’ [ahi:ʤɔ] [ahi:ʤɔ] ‘Beggars’ [ahi:ɓe] [ahi:ɓe] ‘Cap’ [kune:re] [hune:re] ‘Caps’ [kune:ʤe] [hune:ʤe] Time’ [wakkat∫i:] [wakkat∫i:] ‘Cassette’ [beɗu:] [beɗu:] ‘Market’ [lu:mɔ] [lu:mɔ] ‘Rooster’ [zakara:ri] [zakara:ri] ‘Chair’ [kɔrɔwal] [kɔrɔwal] ‘Rag’ [tekkere] [tekkere] ‘Barber’ [fenbɔl] [penbɔl] ‘Teacher’ [mɔ:dibbɔ] [mɔ:dibbɔ] ‘Teachers’ [mɔ:diɓɓɔ] [mɔ:diɓɓɔ] ‘Brother’ [bandira:wɔ] [bandira:wɔ] ‘Friend’ [higintira:wɔ] [figintira:wɔ] ‘God’ [ʤɔ:mira:wɔ] [ʤɔ:mira:wɔ] ‘Prophet’ [anna:bi:ʤɔ] [anna:bi:ʤɔ] ‘Smoke’ [t∫u:ki] [t∫ur:ki] ‘Knock’ [da:de] [da:de] ‘Waist’ [lɔndu] [lɔndu] ‘Writing’ [bindɔ] [biŋdɔ] ‘Back’ [ɓa:wɔ] [ɓa:wɔ] ‘Ring’ [bet∫t∫e] [bet∫t∫e] ‘Teeth’ [ji:tce] [ji:tce] ‘Nose’ [hinere] [hinere] ‘Teaching’ [ʤanginɔl] [ʤanginɔl] ‘Stand up’ [?umma] [?umma] ‘Sit down’ [ʤɔ:ɗa] [ʤɔ:ɗa] ‘Paper’ [ɗe:rɔwɔl] [ɗe:rɔwɔl] ‘Go out’ [wurta-jasi] [wurta-jasi] ‘Go in’ [nattu-der] [nattu-der] ‘Water’ [dijan] [dijan] ‘Okro’ [takaje:ʤe] [takaje:ʤe] ‘Honey’ [ʤu:ri] [ʤu:ri] ‘Sleeping’ [ɗengɔl] [ɗa:nɔl] ‘Beans’ [jebbe] [jebbe]
The number of similarities in the two dialects involved in this study is: R= 188/200=188:200=0.94 The percentage of similarities is: (188)^(2-1)/( (200) ) ×100/1=(188/200)^1×100/1=94% From the percentage of similarities which is 94%, we deduced that there is an impressive degree of homogeneity with the dialects. For the sake of our analysis, we distinguished two groups of dialects. In order to determine the relations between the dialects, we decide to consider the degree of similarities of pairs in a dialect with a view to obtaining the pairs of dialects which closely related to the ones that are further apart within and across the groups. The number of similarities in Guru-mada fula dialect and other fula dialect is 94%. The % of dissimilarity is as follows: R=12/200=12:200=0.06% The percentage of dissimilarity is: The % of dissimilarity = R^(n-1) = 100/1= (12/200)^(2-1)×100/1=(12/200)^1×100/1=6% The time depth of the two dialects is: t=(Log c)/(2Log r)×1000= (Log 94)/(2(Log 83))×1000= (Log 0.94)/(2Log 0.83)×1000= (-0.0268)/2(-0.0809) ×1000= (-0.0268)/(-0.1618)×1000 =165.63 years=165 years The time depth indicates that the two dialects: Gurumada fula dialect and other fula dialect have separated approximately 165 years ago with a percentage of similarity of 94%.Therefore, the separation started since 1846 (2011not included).
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter summarises the previous chapters. It also draws conclusion from the findings which at the same constitute the discovery of the research. However, recommendations are presented in line with the conclusion. 5.1 SUMMARY This research embarked on the survey of language variation of Rumdawa fula dialect (Guru-mada) and other fula speakears of Dakin-Gari, Suru Local Government Area, Kebbi state. Therefore, the research was divided into five chapters. Chapter one dwelled mainly on introduction of the research, the aims and objectives of the research. However, chapter two focuses on related literature of the study. Chapter three focus on methodology of data collection while chapter four is on data presentation and analysis. Finally, the current chapter draws the end of the research with summary, conclusion and recommendations. This investigation identifies two groups of fula dialect (Rundawa fula dialect and other fula dialect of Dakin-gari). This investigation further observes that there are a higher percentage of similarities among the two dialects. We observed the percentage of similarities of Rundawa fula dialects (Guru-mada) and other fula dialects as 94% with dissimilarity of just 6%. 5.2 CONCLUSION From the foregoing discussion on the various chapters in this study, we realized a high degree of homogeneity among the dialects and a high degree of mutual-intelligibility among the speakers. Then, if the degree of dissimilarities is constant linguistically, the dialects will be completely different languages in the same language family. The condition can be reverted if the speaker decided to come together. The attitude of the speakers is a determinant factor in the dissimilarities similarities of the dialects. 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS The research is opinion that in order for the students of Language or any other interested researcher in the study of language particularly the Fulfulde dialects should first consider the variation and similarities among the dialects. Finally, the researcher recommends to the student of Language in the subject matter to take the following into consideration; as it would ease his/her work: Form and structure of the language. semantics.
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